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Blog:2014:May:01:H-Cat Calorimetry

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Compiled by Sterling D. Allan
Pure Energy Systems News


On May 1, 2014, Darrell Jacobson and myself conducted a second calorimetric test of the H-Cat, similar to the first test last month. Some differences included: measuring the outflowing gas (none), adding cooling fins to a metal line going into the H-Cat, using an accurate DC clamp-on amp meter, using a battery charger with rheostat for the power supply.

On this page we will be posting things as they becomes available, and reporting on observations as they come along. This will be an important page since we undoubtedly measured anomalous heat. Lots of data, many videos, photos, reports, discussion...coming.

Contents

Highlights

  • No gas/steam/vapor was emitted to any detectable levels. Plastic bag on output stayed flat.
    • HHO generator flow rate going into the H-Cat was 1.50 L/m. (It took 80 seconds to vacate a 2 L bottle of water.)
    • Part of our intended protocol was to begin the reaction while the H-Cat was out of the water, watching to see the bubbling on the exhust come to an end, or near end. It was bubbling maybe 1 bubble per 20 seconds, if I remember right, when we submerged the running H-Cat into the water, beginning the calorimetric test. When the gas is first introduced to the ambient H-Cat, most of the gas vents out the exhaust. But as it heats up from the catalytic reaction, the exiting gas reduces to zero or near zero. We even saw it form a vacuum two days prior, at which point the spead of heat increase became pronounced.
  • Anomalous Heat
    • 95.7% efficiency measured just in output/input -- (elevating bath temperature)/(watts into HHO generator)
    • Memo: 64% efficiency is what traditional science would say is the upper limit expected (75% max efficiency of electrolysis and 85% max efficiency of catalysis).
    • The bath was measured to be at the same temperature 5.5 hours after we unplugged the HHO gas to the H-Cat
    • The accounting for other heat losses and adsorption: inadequate insulation of bath (from cool-down data); trailer hitch weight; steel tub; were done by David Haack [1]
  • Pending: full analysis of the water and matrix for Sulfur content.
  • The Water collected in the H-Cat appears to be the same as was used in the reservoir to make the HHO gas
    • INPUT: Reservoir dropped 203 ml (+/-20) during test.
      • This was measured by drawing a mark on the water level in the reservoir at the beginning, and again at the end, while the generator was operating. Then, with the generator turned off, another line was drawn to show the difference between the agitated (bubbling) and resting state. That same amount was subtracted from the starting point. I then added distilled water with a 50 ml syringe until the reservoir water level came back up to that adjusted beginning point mark. The +/- 20 ml accuracy estimate is due to difficulty of placing an accurate mark while the system is agitated.
      • A more accurate way to measure the water would be to measure the input water, then vacate the system at the end, and get the before/after weights of the HHO generator, tubes, reservoir.
    • OUTPUT: 114 (poured) + 9 (wet bag) + 54.7 (insulation) + 39.7 (matrix) = 217.4 ml (+/-5)
      • NOTE: Bear in mind that some of the water collected in the H-Cat came from the preliminary testing we were doing to come up with the power level we wanted to us.
      • '114 ml' of water was collected (poured) from the bottom of the H-Cat into a beaker and measured by a 50 ml syringe.
      • The weight of the wet bag (where the water flowed at the end when I picked up the H-Cat) was 11.0 grams. A dry bag weighs 2.0 grams. This yields 9.0 grams of water, which equals '9 ml' of water. Bear in mind that even though I dried the outside of the bag with a towel, that there may have been some water remaining there, from the water bath.
      • The wet ceramic insulation weighed 89.3 g; dry weight is 34.6 g, yielding '54.7' grams or ml of water
      • The wet matrix weighed 670.3 grams; dry weight is 631.1 g. This dry weight is also minus some shavings from Darrell cutting off a couple of wedges of the matrix to send them to Professor Yeong Kim and Steven E Jones for analysis. He used a dremmel tool grinder to make those cuts, and estimates that there may be 0.5 g of shavings to account for. So the weight of the water would be 39.7 grams or ml of water.
  • There were no instances of flashback during the test, or just prior, when setting up the parameters.

Blog

May 13, 4:50 pm: Heat Loss & Absorption Calculated

David Haack has run the numbers, giving his explanations. [2] The total calories he tabulated to add to the test came to 60,173. So, running the math again, we get:

Modified Calculation of Efficiency

10.32 volts x 23.68 amps x 275 minutes = 67203 W-minutes
67203 W-minutes x h/60m x kW / 1000 W = 1.12 kW-h
1.12 kW-h x 3600000 joules/kW-h = 4032230 joules input
20.74 °C x 41.61 L x 1000 ml/L = 862991 calories + 60173 calories from heat loss & absorption = 923164 calories
923164 cal. x 4.18 joules/cal = 3858826 joules output

Output/Input efficiency: 95.7%

Remember that the highest efficiency modern science would predict in a set-up like this would be around 64%. (75% efficient electrolizer x 85% efficient catalysis).

May 8, 10:45 pm: Sufur Hydroxide negative

From: Darrell Jacobson
To: Sterling Allan
Sent: Thursday, May 08, 2014 4:33 PM
Subject: Test for Hydrogen Sulfide


Hi Sterling,
I just ran two separate tests for Hydrogen Sulfide on the exhaust from the H-Cat using the kit you just dropped off.
I had my 27 year old daughter who is an RN by profession help me run the tests so I would have a second opinion. As far as we both could determine there was no visible color change in the water, so if there is sulfur present, the concentration is below 0.3 mg/L which is the threshold of the test strips of the kit.
I tested the water from the KOH reservoir and the results were also negative. I am somewhat disappointed but maybe it requires a lab test with more precise measurement equipment to give a more accurate determination. I guess we will see when the results from the other two samples we sent out come back.
Darrell Jacobson.

Both Professors Yeong Kim and Steven E Jones both have samples of the water and of the matrix and expect to have their results available in about a week.

May 6, 8:20 am: Crazy Random Computerspeak

Since Saturday, when I posted my story Brown's Gas generators create a moving target of Ohm's Law, I've had a difficult time getting YouTube to recognize a video for me to include in a compilation of videos. I waited a day after it was processed, and still it wouldn't pull up in the "edit" mode. It's url was http://youtu.be/OpsywW4QLHg (oopsie watts...; Hg = murcury, used in two of the thermometers we were using) So finally I deleted it and re-uploaded it through the night last night. Here's the new url: http://youtu.be/ohy_dY7oRIE

That made me chuckle. Nearly spells out oxy hydrogen and calorie, which is what we are measuring in these tests.

So I gave it first prize in the list of randomly assigned urls by YouTube, and went through the other ones as well in the set to notate some of the "random" code that has relevance to what we are doing.

I realize many of you think I'm nuts for paying even the slightest attention to the idea that there could be some kind of intelligence behind the assigning of these "random" digits. But when you see things over and over again, I think it's the fool who ignores things like this. At the least, its fun entertainment -- to think that the computer is talking to you in code, or that the angels have power to manipulate the computer to spit out these codes. Some of you may actually see additional things in there that I'm missing, once you pay attention to them.

By the way, I couldn't get the newly uploaded video to pull up in YouTube edit mode (the individual video pulls up, but it doesn't show up in the menu when using the "edit" function for combinging multiple videos, photos, effects, etc.) I guess it's being a stinker because it wants its cool url to be known, not hidden. ohy_dY7oRIE

So, fine, I'll just make all those videos stand-alones.

May 5, 11:45 pm: End Measurement Videos

These are now available:


May 5; 9:30 am: Revised Estimate with Bath Volume Correction

I'm presently rendering a video I shot in which I measured the water in the water bath at the end of the experiment. There were several reasons to do this. First, I'm quite sure I forgot to tabulate one of the 2000 ml additions of water to the basin during set-up. I was using hash marks for each 2 liters, and forgot to mark down one. So we actaully started out with 42, not 40 L of water in the bath. However, while we were testing things out on the two days leading up to the May 1 test, we had a pretty good leak in the bottom of the Cat, which resulted in that water being removed from the basin. So it's good that I was careful to measure the water as I emptied the bath at the end. I measured 41.61 liters, including taking into account the ~75 ml water that dripped off the stirring stick we used each time we took a temperature reading.

My earlier estimate was based on 40 L of water, so here is a revision, correcting that to 41.61

Calculation of Efficiency Estimate
This is an approximations. I haven't entered the data into a spreadsheet program yet.

10.325 volts x 23.7 amps x 275 minutes = 67293 W-minutes
67293 W-minutes x h/60m x kW / 1000 W = 1.12 kW-h
1.12 kW-h x 3600000 joules/kW-h = 4037591 joules input
18.7 °C x 40 41.61 L x 1000 ml/L = 748000 778,107 calories
748000 778,107 cal. x 4.18 joules/cal = 3126640 3252487 joules output

Output/Input efficiency: 77% 81%

May 4; 9:45 am: Videos

Just added #Videos section, below.

May 4; 8:05 am: Highlights

Just added #Highlights section, above.

May 4; 12:25 am: finaly got blog link up

(This won't show up as a hyperlink here, because it points to this present page.)

  • Featured: Nuclear > HHO / LENR > H-Cat > Calorimetry > Sterling's >
    H-Cat Calorimetry Test 2 Blog - This is where I've been posting stuff as it becomes available, and reporting on observations as they come along. This will be an important page since we undoubtedly measured anomalous heat. Lots of data, many videos, photos, reports, discussion...coming. (PESWiki; May 1, 2014)

May 3; 11:20 pm: Tour of Steve's Shop

On May 1, after getting to bed at 3 pm, working on my announcement report, I awoke at 6 am and drove up to Orerm, Utah to pick up a couple of flashback arresters from Steve D. of http://greenfuelh2o.com, who sold us the HHO generator. I didn't want to be in the middle of a test or demo and have our last flashback arrester go out, like the first one did, and be stuck.

Steve has an impressive place (you should see his house exterior!). I had to take a quick video interview so you could see his facility. He's a serious player.

I'm told that his generators are among the most efficient on the planet. And very simple. His support has been good for us.


-- SilverThunder 05:16, 4 May 2014 (UTC)

May 3, 11:05 pm: Grandpa Jacobson's magic carpet

May 1 was Darrell Jacobson's birthday. His son and grandchildren showed up, and he took his girls out for a ride on the "magic carpet". His place is fitted with a tree swing as well, and a huge tire swing. What a great grandfather! Inspiring. I enjoyed sharing his birthday, and sometimes felt guilty for pulling him away, though I figured that getting some great results would make for a great birthday present. And we accomplished that.

I actually got this video up the next day:

May 3, 9:55 pm: Ohm's Law moving target

Posted this a couple of hours ago.

May 3, 3:45 pm: Purdue Prof Weighs in

May 2, 10:25 am: Cool-off

Like last time, we left the cat in the bath after we turned the power off. And the temperature of the water at 2:56 am was still at 26 C, the same as it was at 9:21 when we stopped, though ambient was much lower at night in the unheated garage.

By 8:24, the bath had dropped to 24.5 C. It was at 25.5 at 6:51 am. (measured by Darrell)

So it looks like we're going to be able to add a lot of calories to the system with that data.

May 2, 9:15 am: Estimate Tally of Full Run

We ended the experiment last night at 9:21, having run it continuously from 4:46 pm. We would have gone longer, but the intput power level was starting to drop, and I didn't want to have to worry about having to calculate the curve under a changing power level. The power supply (battery charger on 15 amp setting with AC-AC rheostat) held fairly steady until the 9:11 reading.

Some of the following results are approximations. I haven't entered the data into a spreadsheet program yet.

Data

Volts: 10.325 (+/- 0.005)
Ohms: 2.1 / 2.2 (+/- 0.1), measured minutes after we turned the system off. (Bear in mind that the KOH concentration increases as the reservoir level drops, which will change the resistance.) When I touched the two leads together, the meter read 0 and (OL?) alternately. [NOTE: I'm getting some serious discrepancies between several meters on the ohms readings. I am not at all confidence about the accuracy of this measurement.]
Amps: ~23.7 (+/- 0.6) [meastured with Tpi DC claim-on]
Beginning water temp: 13.3 C (+/- 0.2) [we have duplicate meters on the temps]
Ending water temp at 9:21 pm: 26.0 C (+/- 0.2)
Duration: 4:46 pm - 9:21 pm
Ambient at beginning: 21.0 C (+/- 0.2)
Ambient at end: 18.0 C (+/- 0.2)
The water bath has 40 L in it [note, I think I may have accidentally not counted one of the 2 L sets when I was pouring. I'm going to measure the water presently in the bath to double check.]

Calculation of Efficiency Estimate
This is an approximations. I haven't entered the data into a spreadsheet program yet.

10.325 volts x 23.7 amps x 275 minutes = 67293 W-minutes
67293 W-minutes x h/60m x kW / 1000 W = 1.12 kW-h
1.12 kW-h x 3600000 joules/kW-h = 4037591 joules input
18.7 °C x 40 L x 1000 ml/L = 748000 calories
748000 cal. x 4.18 joules/cal = 3126640 joules output

Output:Input efficiency: 77%

Add another estimated 15% to account for other heat losses (water bath insulation, trailer hitch weight, steel tub weight), and you get around 92% efficient.

I'll be entering my numbers into an xls spreadsheet later.

The highest efficiency modern science would predict in a set-up like this would be around 64% (75% efficient electrolizer x 85% efficient catlysis).

6:25 pm: Math on First Hour

Data: From 4:46 pm to 5:43 pm (57 minutes), with the amps being 24.2 and volts being 10.32, and with a temperature rise of 2.9 °C from 13.3 to 16.2 °C.

10.32 volts x 24.2 amps x 57 minutes = 14235 W-minutes
14235 W-minutes x h/60m x kW / 1000 W = 0.237 kW-h
0.237 kW-h x 3600000 joules/kW-h = 854100 joules input
2.9 °C x 40 L x 1000 ml/L = 116000 calories
116000 cal. x 4.18 joules/cal = 484880 joules output

Output:Input efficiency: 57%

(Note that this number does not take into consideration the loss of heat by the imperfect insulation of the water bath; nor the steel trailer hitch, nor the steel water bath. These boosted the first experiment numbers by 15% [3] [4]). If this happens again, this would push us closer to 72%.

The highest efficiency modern science would predict in a set-up like this would be around 64% (75% efficient electrolizer x 85% efficient catlysis).

While our results are in the same general ballpark of our first test a month ago, I realize that they are not high enough over the break-even point to be jumping dances over.

5:45 pm: Started Test, Looks Like Repeat

At 4:46:15, we submerged the activated H-Cat in the water. We've not been able to repeat the results today of what we saw yesterday with the outgoing bubbles stopping and going to vacuum then the heat reaction taking off, leading to flashback.

So we just went with the settings we were at and commenced the test, with the difference that we first let the HHO gas pass through the cat to bring it up to a higher temperature before submerging it.

Our power input is about twice what it was last month, and the rate of heating is about twice as fast as well.

Here are our settings, which are pretty stable, except, of course, the water bath temperature:

Volts: 10.32 (+/- 0.01)
Amps: ~24.20 (+/- 0.3) [meastured with Tpi DC claim-on]
Ohms: 1.1 at 200M [measured yesterday] When I touched the two leads together, the meter read 0 and (OL?) alternately. [NOTE: I'm getting some serious discrepancies between several meters on the ohms readings. I am not at all confidence about the accuracy of this measurement.]
Beginning water temp: 13.3 C (+/- 0.2) [we have duplicate meters on the temps]
Water temp after 57 minutes: 16.2 C (+/- 0.3)
Ambient: 20.5 C (+/- 0.2)
The water bath has 40 L in it

We fastened a grocery produce bag to the output gas tube, and so far, it doesn't look like it is filling up at all. If anything, it's in a state of slight suction.

4:00 pm: Mucking Around

Haven't been able to get the effect we were seeing yesterday. Puzzled.

Have replaced the wet ceramic insulation in the cat with dry; dried out the matrix.

Outside the bath, have started at a low power setting on incoming gas, and have gradually increased the power. The temperature has gradually increased, but the bubbles have not stopped, though they vary up and down, around 1/second.

Taking a quick break while the Cat cools down in the bath. Next try: hit it suddenly with the largeer amount of HHO gas we're at now, close to the highest we ran it at yesterday. Wondering if the heat differential in the cat might contribute to the effect of stopping the bubble flow and going to vacuum, which is what we're after.

We've not seen the effect of the extreme heat production effect after the bubbles stop; which we saw yesterday.

Haven't had a single flashback yet today, even though the cat got above boiling point in its external temperature, far hotter than it got yesterday when the bubble production stopped and went to vacuum.

12:30 pm: Not going to broadcast

CHANGE OF PLANS. WE'RE NOT GOING TO BROADCAST. DON'T HAVE THE PERSONNEL FOR IT. NEED TO FOCUS ON WHAT WE'RE DOING. WE WILL RECORD VIDEO AND TAKE PHOTOS AND DATA. -- Sterling

11:25 am: We're here

We've been here for about and hour. Getting set up. Sorry, I spaced out updating the blog.

We're close to starting experiment. Maybe 45-60 minutes.

I'll turn the webcam on.

Pre 11:25 archive

(Here's what I had:)

"commencing May 1, 2014 around 11 am MDT"

Videos

Overview

Post Synopsis of H Cat Calorimetry Test 2 by Sterling Allan, May 1, 2014

H-Cat output gas goes to zero

H-Cat flashback creates suction in exhaust

Experiment Take-Down

Live Webcam Archives

Moving Target of Ohms Law in HHO Generator

(Once they're all uploaded, I plan to combine them into one. That's why their status is "unlisted".)

Introduction/Overview of the Ohms Issue

Miscellanous

In the News

See also

H-CAT

HHO FOOTER

LENR FOOTER:

LEADING LENR COMPANIES:

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