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Gas

Lasted edited by Andrew Munsey, updated on June 14, 2016 at 9:37 pm.

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A gas is one of the four major `There was an error working with the wiki: Code[1]` (after `There was an error working with the wiki: Code[2]`), that subsequently appear as a solid material is subjected to increasingly higher temperatures. Thus, as energy in the form of `There was an error working with the wiki: Code[3]` or `There was an error working with the wiki: Code[4]` to become a gas (e.g., water vapor). In some circumstances, a solid (e.g., "`There was an error working with the wiki: Code[5]`. If the gas is further heated, its atoms or molecules can become (wholly or partially) `There was an error working with the wiki: Code[6]`, turning the gas into a plasma.

Physics

In the gas phase, the `There was an error working with the wiki: Code[7]` state. Following the `There was an error working with the wiki: Code[8]` to homogeneously fill any shape or volume of space that is made available to them.

The thermodynamic state of a gas is characterized by its `There was an error working with the wiki: Code[11]`, its Temperature, which is determined by the average velocity or kinetic energy of the molecules, and its `There was an error working with the wiki: Code[12]`, which measures the average force exerted by the molecules colliding against a surface. These variables are related by the fundamental `There was an error working with the wiki: Code[13]`, which state that the pressure in an `There was an error working with the wiki: Code[14]` is proportional to its temperature and number of molecules, but inversely proportional to its volume.

Like `There was an error working with the wiki: Code[9]`, gases are `There was an error working with the wiki: Code[10]`). Because of this high kinetic energy, gas atoms and `There was an error working with the wiki: Code[15]` tend to bounce off of any containing surface and off one another, the more powerfully as the kinetic energy is increased. A common misconception is that the collisions of the molecules with each other is essential to explain gas `There was an error working with the wiki: Code[16]`, but in fact their random velocities are sufficient to define that quantity. Mutual collisions are important only for establishing the `There was an error working with the wiki: Code[17]`.

Gas particles are normally well separated, as opposed to liquid particles, which are in contact. A material particle (say a dust mote) in a gas moves in `There was an error working with the wiki: Code[18]`. Since it is at the limit of (or beyond) current technology to observe individual gas particles (atoms or molecules), only theoretical calculations give suggestions as to how they move, but their motion is different from Brownian Motion. The reason is that Brownian Motion involves a smooth drag due to the frictional force of many gas molecules, punctuated by violent collisions of an individual (or several) gas molecule(s) with the particle. The particle (generally consisting of millions or billions of atoms) thus moves in a jagged course, yet not so jagged as we would expect to find if we could examine an individual gas molecule.

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