Directory:Sonofusion Reactor

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Image:Sonofusion device 200.gif

:"In March 1989, Roger Stringham of First Gate Energies, in Hawaii, USA pioneered the method of using acoustic cavitation to produce the cold fusion effect. Acoustic cavitation uses ultrasonic waves to create gas bubbles within the heavy water. Stringham was the first to use the term "sonofusion" to describe how this phenomenon creates energy in cold fusion experiments.

This work is not be confused with other experiments in the hot fusion field which also use a form of acoustic cavitation, called "acoustic inertial confinement fusion." The two types of research are markedly different.

The key differences with the cold fusion method, sonofusion, is that the effect is directly related to an as-yet-unknown interaction between heavy water and a host metal, such as palladium. The hot fusion method does not employ a host metal. The other key distinction between the cold fusion and hot fusion method is that the cold fusion method produces no deadly neutron radiation, as occurs in hot fusion." (Steven B. Krivit,New Energy Times 2005)


Official Website

How it Works

Cavitation and Fusion - 35-page PDF.

Low Mass 1.6 MHz Sonofusion Reactor - 13-page PDF.

Sonofusion Jets - Sonofusion energy is harvested from many billions of TCBs, transient cavitation bubbles, produced/sec in 1 cc of D2O, the volume of the device that experimentally produces around 40 watts of sonofusion heat.



This video will be updated.


(20 Minutes)

When Bubble Cavitation becomes Sonofusion - Remembering Fleischman and Pons - Roger Sherman Stringham discusses the sonofusion reactor bubble cavitation process he helped patent years ago at the American Chemical Society in Salt Lake City, UT, March 2009. Experimentally, heat and helium are the sonofusion's fusion products. Sonofusion controls a naturally occurring phenomenon with cavitation-induced bubbles and their high energy density transfered to transient jets that implant deuteron clusters into a matrix lattice. The Sonofusion path to clusters can be extrapolated from high-density experiments of inertial confined fusion, Bose Einstein Condensates, muon fusion and astrophysical phenomena, to explain our ejecta sites, heat, helium and no measureable long range radiation results. The fusion events emanate from deuteron clusters implanted into target foils. Clusters are squeezed and cooled via electromagnetic, compression pressures and endothermic deuteron atom recombination producing the fusion environment. Evidence of these cluster fusion events are found in the millions of target foil ejecta sites in Sonofusion target foils. Video produced by Dr. Robert Zelkovsky. (Google Video April 2, 2009)


(1 hour 32 Minutes)

The basic principles of Sympathetic Vibratory Physics (SVP) and Keely's work. 1 of 2 Presentation to the United States Psychotronics Association in 1994. Very little of the information is contained in any printed source. John Worrell Keely Sympathetic Vibratory Physics Dale Pond (Google Video 1994)

_ _ _ _


(1 hour 19 Minutes)

The basic principles of Sympathetic Vibratory Physics (SVP) and Keely's work. 2 of 2 Presentation to the United States Psychotronics Association in 1994. Very little of the information is contained in any printed source. John Worrell Keely Sympathetic Vibratory Physics Dale Pond (Google Video 1994)


Educational kits may cost around $2,500 USD.


Piezoelectric effect amplifies vibration to create heat. 2ccs of heavy water could heat a home for a year.


Water Heating

Independent Testing


1995 and earlier.


Company: First Gate Energies

History 1989-1991

This is a brief initial history of Sonofusion - I noted those individuals who did not respond to my request to add their thoughts to their contributions. Roger Stringham (June 14, 2009)

The idea of using cavitation to produce energy densities high enough to fuse hydrogen flashed in my mind when Fleischmann and Pons announced their electrochemical results in March 1989. I had just started a small research and development partnership with Reed Gardner in 1987-8 focused on practical applications of cavitation bubbles in industry. We met with Tom Passell of the Electric Power Research Inc, and others. Bill Snook, a machinist who Reed knew, put together a 20 KHz cavitation device based on HEAT SYSTEMS technology for this purpose. I had several years experience in photochemical research using these cavitation systems. The Fleischmann and Pons announcement changed my thinking and Reed and I dissolved our partnership amicably and have remained close. My first attempt in my home and small laboratory in the Santa Cruz Mountains overlooking Stanford’s linear accelerator and campus produced exciting results showing highly discolored and melting of the Pd foil. I had the necessary D2O in my home lab and Bernard Wood of Stanford Research International, SRI, where I had spent 15 years, gave me a small piece of Pd foil. With the flexible D2O cavitation apparatus, which Bill Snook machined for me, I started on my 20 year path developing sonofusion and its technology, a new approach to alternate energy generation.

I met with an old friend, Dick Raymond, who was an experienced business manager. We had spent quite a bit of time together during our years at SRI starting in 1960. He introduced me to his friend and associate Larry Klein, a Palo Alto corporate attorney. I hooked up with Howard Peters who I knew as a chemist at SRI and later as a patent attorney, and we did initial work through the patent attorney Hugh Finley who was a high school classmate. The US patent situation was very political. We did not know this at the time. Bill Snook machined a new device just for the purpose of sonofusion research (initially called micro fusion). Meanwhile in the laboratory we struggled with problems of heat measurement and analysis of the gases over the D2O. Help from Steve Wolff as a consultant on the calorimetry measurements and helium four mass spectrum measurements of residual gases was contracted out to SRI and Dave Thomas. The cavitation device, MI, was heavy, was cumbersome, and was a robust 20 KHz system. Through these first several years we made most of our sonofusion developmental progress. In 1992 we eventually incorporated into a research and development corporation as EQuest Science with Dick Raymond as president.

Below is a list of these people who helped sonofusion in the early days

Reed Gardner - Financial

Bill Snook - Machinist

Dick Raymond - President

Howard Peters - Patent attorney

Larry Klein - Corporate attorney

Steve Wolff - Calorimetry

Dave Thomas - Mass spectroscopy

Hugh Finley - Patent attorney (deceased)

Reed Gardner

Roger and I were in grammar school together and lived in the same neighborhood in Berkeley, CA. I helped Roger get started in the commercial application of cavitation bubbles for industrial use. We had a partner arrangement where he did the science and I would supply the resources. This partnership came to an end when Roger got involved in sonofusion to the exclusion of everything else. We keep in touch and I give council whenever I can. This paragraph is in the voice of Reed Gardner without his permission.

Bill Snook

“I was a machinist for Gardco, a company that specialized in outdoor lighting fixtures, and I met Roger through Reed Gardner, Gardco’s CEO. After some discussions and working drawings, I produced in my spare time the first of several devices. The first device, was a general cavitation device, 20 KHz, in 1988. The second device, Roger called the MI, was also 20KHz, consisting of about 10 Kilos of steel, aluminum, and parts was delivered to him in 1989. A few years later I machined an improved version of the MI 20 KHz device, the MII. I machined two aluminum 46 KHz, MIII devices in 1994. In 1996 an improved version of the 46 KHz device, the MIIII, was machined. I was consulted from time to time on newer high frequency systems. In all I produced 6 + devices for Roger.”

Dick Raymond

"Roger and I played basketball together for years. During the 1980s we worked together on a company called Shoe Patch that produced a substance for dedicated runners with prematurely worn out shoes. Talking to Roger one day asking what he was up to and he told me he had set up a lab in his house studying a new type energy system called cold fusion. The details he related to me sounded like a great opportunity to create something for reducing the environmental impact of using and producing energy. We had some discussions and I introduced Roger to some of my colleagues. I knew some people who might be interested in helping this project. People that I discussed this with were Larry Klein and Grant Spaeth. I also suggested he contact a patent attorney he knew, Howard Peters. That was April 1989 and on into 1990s. Larry was a corporate attorney who I had worked with in the past and we had a good relationship. The three of us, Larry, Roger, and myself worked on a strategy to get this project launched. Howard Peters worked with Roger as did Bill Snook the machinist and by the end of 1989 we had experiments going and some data to talk about. A patent was applied for in 1991. In late 1992 with the help of Steve Wolff, Russ George, Tom Benson, and some investors we started EQuest Sciences, which I thought was a pretty great name. As president I looked for more investors and outlined a business plan. The end of 1992 I found laboratory space in Redwood City. Roger could move his lab from his home in the hills of Woodside to Silicon Valley."

Dr. Howard Peters

I remember Roger from the SRI days. He had contacted me several times since.

In 1989 Roger contacted me and we met with Hugh Finley and discussed some problems in filing US and International patents on Roger’s invention. I took Roger to an ACS meeting where Tom Passell and Mike McKubre gave presentations of their recent data. I also took Roger’s early data and organized it as notebooks. We filed patents in 1990. Things changed and I broke off from Hugh Finley and Roger broke off from Hugh Finley. Later Roger went back to Finley where they were successful and granted an Australian patent in 1994. Hugh Finley died a few years later from a bad fall and I have not heard from Roger in years. I think his current patent attorney is Brian Marcus in San Francisco. This paragraph is in the voice of Howard Peters without his permission.

Larry Klein

I had worked with Dick Raymond on a number of projects years before and I think in 1989 or ’90 that we - Dick, Roger, and I - met to discuss a path that might fit the potential of Roger’s invention. We had a number of informal lunch meetings and several boardroom meetings including other interested parties in the offices of Blaise, Valentine, and Klein.

The result of these meetings was a S2 corporation by the name of EQuest Sciences Inc. and was in place near the end of 1992 and capitalized at $5,000,000 with a list of about 6 investors that Dick found. The last time I met with Roger, he was with Joe McDowell, was after EQuest became First Gate Energies in Oct. 2004 where I advised him to be careful about how his invention information was handled. This paragraph is in the voice of Larry Klein without his permission.

Steve Wolff

“Pons and Fleischmann’s announcement 20 years ago of their success in achieving room temperature fusion in a test tube generated plenty of excitement, which died down and even turned hostile after they failed to reproduce their experiments on demand. At the time, a colleague of mine, Roger Stringham, saw the media coverage and made an intuitive connection between Pons- and his own work on photo sonication. Roger observed that Pons’ electrolysis experiment was creating bubbles and he believed that some of them adiabatically collapsed with sufficient energy to drive the deuterium into the metal lattice and cause fusion.

Knowing that electrolysis was an inefficient and unreliable way of achieving this, he adapted his lab-based sonication equipment to test and evaluate this further. His initial experiments led to melting and discoloration of the reactor’s palladium foil in spite of it being immersed in heavy water and subsequent independent analysis yielded unnatural isotope distributions and “eruptions” in the remaining foil. All of this suggested that high temperature nuclear reactions were going on at a microscopic scale in his equipment an environment where water remained liquid.

For this process to be commercially useful, Roger wanted to see if excess energy was produced, and he approached me, as a Chemical Engineer, to help understand the thermal characteristics and calorimetry of his set-up. On seeing the lab equipment and estimating heat loss vectors, it was clear that we’d have a hard time controlling heat loss and turning the equipment into a true calorimeter that could determine heat losses in a manner that would be convincing to an increasingly skeptical public and media. At my recommendation, we used a different approach to prove that excess energy was being generated. Into the existing flow loop, we added a series of thermocouples located around the major components to quantify heat loss and, more importantly, added a thermal heating coil into the reactor itself, which could be used in place of the sonofusion reaction. We could then record the temperatures from the sonofusion reaction and make estimates of the heat loss throughout the system.

In a separate experiment we used the thermal heater instead of the sonofusion reactor to “match” the fusion reaction’s temperature profiles. By measuring the input power to the thermal heater, we knew exactly how much energy the sonofusion reactor was producing to achieve those profiles. We then compared the actual power fed to the sonicator system for the fusion experiment with the power supplied to the conventional heater in the baseline experiment. The difference in power represents the excess heat produced by the fusion process. The substantial difference in energy between the two experiments convinced us that some type of heat generating fusion process occurred. After that, it was time to put my Marketing hat on to help E-Quest Sciences, a start-up company Roger formed to advance and hopefully commercialize the new technology.

I produced a 3 D animation of Roger’s understanding of the science behind the sonofusion process to graphically explain our concept and convince others. Later, I worked on the company’s business plan, logo design and corporate communications materials. I also took the cover photograph for the first issue of Infinite Energy, a new magazine dedicated to developments in cold fusion.”

Dr. David Thomas

“Helium four measurements were made by me, Dr. David Thomas, on gasses collected in 20 cc Pyrex sample volumes that Roger brought to me for analysis. These sample gases were passed through LN removing Ar, D2O, and other condensable. The LKB -1600 mass spectrometer was modified to monitor the remaining low mass species. The 4He and D2 mass were resolved but not the DH and 3He. The results of several runs showed 4He just above the noise level and the presence of H2, and D2. I made these mass spectral measurements in the early nineties {1990-1992} when he was under an SRI contract from Photosonication Consulting.

Inventor: Roger Sherman Stringham

Roger Stringham Interview

Presentation to the Alternative Energy User Group, April 1, 2009 (Includes Google Video of discussion.)


In the News

Google News

Russ George and Roger Stringham's Involvement in Sonofusion - Clarification about who played what role along the lines of prior art in this field of fusion by cavitation spurred by a question posted by cold fusion expert, Steven B. Krivit. (PESN July 25, 2005)

Research into sonofusion continues to attract attention - In 2002, nuclear engineers Rusi P. Taleyarkhan of Purdue University and Richard T. Lahey Jr. of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute announced that they had produced thermonuclear fusion by imploding tiny deuterium-rich gas bubbles with sound waves and neutrons. The news about their fusion method — dubbed sonofusion — made headlines worldwide. (Rensselaer Research Quarterly Spring 2005)

Sonofusion Research Reactor Now Available from Impulse Devices - Using proprietary technology, the IDI reactor is a stainless steel sphere filled with heavy water and, at its center, a small bubble of deuterium (heavy hydrogen). Sound waves cause the bubble, first to expand greatly, followed by its collapse to a fraction of its original size, all at the rate of thousands of times a second. (SpaceWar Dec. 14, 2004)

Sonofusion Claims in - Sonofusion (and sonoluminescence) is an area in which Infinite Energy has published since its inception in 1995. In fact, our first issue, March/April 1995, had Roger Stringham (now of First Gate Energies, Inc.) on the cover, cradling his sonofusion reactor. The cover story, "A 'Micro-Fusion' Reactor: Nuclear Reactions 'In the Cold' by Ultrasonic Cavitation," was by Tom Benson, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 33-37. (Infinite Energy March 2002)

First Gate Energies’ Sonofusion Reactor: Initial Validation at 50% Excess Heat - Success is especially sweet when one has been trying for a long time, without much success, to identify and develop a robust demonstration device for cold fusion phenomena— excess heat and nuclear effects. Such a device now appears to be close at hand in the sonofusion reactor of Roger Stringham and his colleagues at First Gate Energies. (Infinite Energy March/April 2001)


See Talk:Directory:Sonofusion Reactor


Sympathetic Vibratory Physics - Dale Pond's site.

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First Gate Energies:

PO Box 1230

Kilauea, HI 96754

Skype: rsstringham

E-Mail: []