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Directory:Maisotsenko M-Cycle Coolerado

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Image:CooleradoR600 200.jpg

The engineering, design, application and installation of Coolerado's unique air-conditioning systems offer more flexibility and change than the air-conditioning world has seen in decades, using the Maisotsenko Cycle (M-Cycle).

Indirect Evaporative Cooling.

: "Maisotsenko Cycle uses atmospheric air as a renewable source of energy."

: "Maisotsenko Cycle and its different applications are protected by more than 200 patents."

About

Official Website

http://www.coolerado.com

http://www.idalex.com

Cool Tools - Psychrometric Charts.

Interviews

Image:FreeEnergyNowRadioIcon95x95 byKevn.gif

Stream | Download (13 Mb mp3) - On Aug. 31, 2009, Congress:Founder:Sterling D. Allan conducted a 1-hour live interview with Mike Luby, CEO of Coolerado, as part of the Free Energy Now radio show.

See PESN story about the interview.

How it Works

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The Maisotsenko Cycle - Three explanations of the Maisotsenko Cycle depending on your knowledge of thermodynamics.

The Maisotsenko Combustion Turbine Cycle (MCTC) can produce power with fuel efficiencies above 60 percent without a bottoming cycle steam turbine. The MCTC is similar to the Humid Air Turbine (HAT) cycle, but it uses far less equipment with much higher heat transfer rates and less pressure drop.

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At the heart of the MCTC is the Maisotsenko Compressed Air Saturator/Turbine Exhaust Cooler. This equipment uses existing shell and tube heat exchanger technologies, built in a new configuration.

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The Idalex refrigerant condenser uses the Maisotsenko cycle, water and ambient air to cool a product stream (refrigerant). The working air stream, which is exhausted from the system, is used to cool the fluid. The working air passes through the condenser, which consists of sections of wet and dry channels, incrementally cooling the fluid both sensibly and evaporatively.

Other Products

Image:Coolerado-solar-powered-air-conditioning-95x95.jpg

Finally a Solar-Powered Air Conditioner: 6 Tons of A/C Using 4 Solar Panels - One interesting trick that Coolerado uses, is exhaust air from the A/C unit to cool down the solar panels. Cooling down the panels with exhaust air allows them to keep producing more, reducing costs because fewer panels are needed. (YouTube) (TreeHugger Feb. 25, 2009)

Recupeator System

The M-Cycle through our recuperator system (duplex humidifying air recuperator 42 and humidifying fuel recupeator 10) provides additional mechanical energy by extracting the exhaust heat from an engine 5. It can improve fuel economy and also reduce the quantities of harmful gases from engine 5 by producing water vapor, using the heat of exhaust gas 19, by means of vaporization process, mixing it with an appropriate amount of air to form a highly humid air 35, and adding it to the usual air-and –fuel mixture 41. The proposed internal combustion engine 5 contains a turbocharger 1 with a compressor 2 and turbine 3. This engine extracts otherwise wasted heat usefully from both the engine exhaust gas 19 and engine cooling system 9.

Potential benefits of M-Cycle use for a traditional internal combustion engine's application include:

The standard off-the-shelf Otto or Diesel-cycle engine can perform at increased specific power with nominal 65-75% efficiency, while at the same time having only trace emissions. However, these days’ engines operate with efficiency around 30-32%.

Fuel consumption reduction (up to 45-55% as per our preliminary evaluation).

Environmental pollution reduction (up to 9-12 times, it is proven results).

The tremendous detonation suppression using high compression ratio, which make more efficient use of the energy in fuel, and also produce more power, than those with a lower compression ratio.

Reclaim water by condensing from exhaust gas.

Vaporization process and heating of the fuel vapor and air mixing through the M-Cycle can additionally increase fuel economy up to 30%.

Improve the chemical energy of the fuel through the M-Cycle, which reforms fuel containing a mixture of hydrocarbon gas and steam to produce hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The calorific content of the hydrocarbon fuel can be increased by up to 28%. This process has name «Thermo Chemical Recuperation» by adding water steam to the hydrocarbon fuel.

Engine through the M-Cycle doesn’t needs to have a radiator.

There are many new patents, publications and several prototypes from USA, Japan, Sweden, Russia and etc. that have proven the concept, (for example, see book: «Wet Way Combustion» by Remi Guillet, or "Humidified gas turbines—a review of proposed and implemented cycles", Energy, June 2005). But the M-Cycle has thermodynamic advantages because 1) it can get more water vapor and consequently more mass into the engine and 2) it can recover more heat for engine from the outgoing exhausts gas by the most simple and cheap way. The viability has been proven under different patents and proof of concept lab engines.

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Figure 1 is a schematic representation of the internal combustion engine through the M-Cycle with the duplex humidifying air recuperator 42 and simultaneously humidifying fuel recuperator 10 in an exemplary internal combustion engine cycle application. Our U.S. Patent No 6,948,558 describes these apparatuses in detail. Outside air 4 is directed by a compressor 2 as compressed air 18 to an inlet of the duplex humidifying air recuperator 42. The duplex humidifying air recuperator 42 is an assembly of components including a first heat exchanger 24 and a cooperating second heat exchanger 26, which are wetted by hot water 22. Hot water 22, after absorbing the engines heat, outlets from the engine’s cooling system 9 and it is directed to the duplex humidifying air recuperator 42 for injecting through the means 38. After passing through the first 24 and second 26 heat exchangers, the superheated and moist compressed air 35 is directed to the dry channel 7 of the humidifying fuel recuperator 10. Simultaneously, the exhaust combustion gases 19 generated in the engine 5 still have significant heat and may be used to our advantage in the duplex humidifying air recuperator 42. After passing through the recuperator 42, the exhaust combustion gases 19 is cooled and directed to the product channel 6 of the humidifying fuel recuperator 10, where it is cooled additionally, and then drawn (with temperature and absolute humidity close to parameters of outside air) into the atmosphere. The exhaust gases 19 in the product channel 6 are correspondingly cooled below its dew point temperature and approach the temperature of evaporation of liquid fuel 17 to the rejoined air stream 35 in the wet channel 8. It helps to condense the vapor of water 21 from the exhaust gases 19. This condensable cold water 21 is directed from the product channel 6 by a pump 20 for an inlet of the engine’s cooling system 9. Hot water 22, after absorbing the engine's heat, outlets from the engine’s cooling system 9, and it is directed to the duplex humidifying air recuperator 42 for injecting through the means 38 into the first 30 and second 34 counterheat channels during operation. Therefore, this proposed internal combustion engine through the M-Cycle reclaims water by condensing from exhaust gas 19.

During passing through the dry channel 7 the superheated and moist compressed air 35 is cooled, due to the heat absorption due to evaporation of liquid fuel 17 occurring in the wet channel 8, and then it is turned to the wet channel 8, where it flows counter currently in contact with the moist surfaces, for example, with wick or capillary-porous material being wetted by evaporative liquid fuel 17. As the rejoined air stream 35 passes along the wet channel 8 it is moistened by vapor of liquid fuel 17 and it is drawn as the humidified air/fuel mixture 41 to the internal combustion engine 5 for combustion.

The proposed combustion engine system (see Figure 1) realizes the best two stage heat recovery processes, using two heat and mass exchange apparatuses through the M-Cycle: 1st stage-duplex humidifying air recuperator 42 2nd stage-humidifying fuel recuperator 10. The first stage utilizes the unique evaporative cooling process by the water 22 evaporation to compressed air 18. The second stage utilizes more deep evaporative cooling process by the liquid fuel 17 evaporation to the superheated and moist compressed air 35, because the temperature of evaporation of liquid fuel 17 is always much less of the evaporation temperature of water 22. It helps to recover greatly possible amount of the heat and water from the exhaust gas 19, which is thrown away to atmosphere with parameters (temperature and humidity), approaching parameters of atmosphere. It minimizes heat losses of an engine 5. That means that almost all heat, which was brought by the burned fuel 17 for engine, is transferred for producing additional mechanical energy. Herewith finally, after passing in series through these two apparatuses 42 and next 10, it is possible to get the perfect humidified air/fuel mixture 41, whose combustion in an engine 5 brings significant reduction of pollution (about 10 times) and consumption of fuel (about 45-55%). As a result, thermal efficiency for these internal combustion engines is more than 70% in comparison to present engines that operate with efficiency of only 30%-32%.

The proposed internal combustion engine doesn’t needs to have a radiator, which is used for the cooling system of internal combustion engine. A conventional radiator for traditional engine's cooling system is not efficient water-air heat exchange apparatus, through which heat from engine is uselessly thrown away into the atmosphere.

In proposed internal combustion engine through the M-Cycle, cooling capacity was created from both evaporating water 22 and evaporating liquid fuel 17. This positive result bears another positive result as follows: evaporating water 22 and liquid fuel 17 to compressed air 18, before its combustion. These evaporative processes help to create perfect condition to form the ideal humidified air/fuel mixture 41, which is efficiently combusted with minimum pollution (less 10 times) and uses less fuel (about 45-55%).

In another proposal aimed at improving efficiency, the recovered heat from the exhaust gas 19 heats and humidifies the fuel 17, after its evaporation and mixing with the moist compressed air 35 inside of the wet channel 8, to improve the chemical energy of the fuel 17 (via reforming humidifying process). This process reforms fuel 17 containing mixture of hydrocarbon gas and steam to produce hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Hydrogen content in the partially reformed fuel can be > 30% by volume. This process has name «Thermo Chemical Recuperation (TCR) » by adding water steam to the hydrocarbon fuel.

This technique of recycling the engine exhaust heat can reduce fuel use (heat rate). In addition, the hydrogen enhanced combustion also allows stable engine operation at a higher air-fuel ratio (leaner combustion) for very low NOx production. The M-Cycle is the best for TCR technologies because it realizes the most efficient humidifying process for hydrocarbon fuel by recovering the maximum heat (sensible and latent) from exhaust gas.

Videos/Photos

Cool school - Tutorials and videos.

Advantages

The specific benefits for the Maisotsenko Combustion Turbine Cycle include:

#There is no need for after-compressor heat exchangers to cool the compressed air to near its dew point temperature before the air enters the saturator with the cooled water from the saturator.

#There is no need for a recuperator because it is included in the top exchanger.

#There is no need for a humidification tower that is dependent on the above heat exchangers.

#There is no need for a boiler to add additional humidity to the compressed air.

#There is no need for an economizer cooled with water from the humidifier tower.

#Incorporating the equipment listed in 1 through 5 into one piece of equipment provides direct heat and/or mass transfer between compressed air, evaporating water, water and turbine exhaust gases combining several heat exchange approaches into one. This reduces the amount of heat transfer surface needed.

#Only the available heat from the stack exhaust gas and inter-compressor coolers limits humidification of the compressed air.

#Humidification of the compressed air and/or super heating of that air with the exhaust gas is easily controlled by the amount and location of water entering the shell side of the top exchanger. The design will self adjust to differing operating conditions automatically.

#The properties of high-pressure air and water vapor mixtures are not well known, creating problems in sizing and design of existing equipment. This is much less of a problem with the Maisotsenko Cycle saturator as it is self-regulating.

#Cooling water can be drawn from the cold-water outlet if desired.

#There is less pressure drop, since there are fewer pieces of equipment to travel through.

#Less total surface area is needed, because the heat transfer rate is higher due to the evaporation on the outside of the tubes.

#The temperature difference across the tube is greater because the wall temperature will become the wet bulb temperature of the surrounding air.

#The initial cost is less, as less surface area and less equipment is needed.

#The operating costs are less, since the system is self-regulating.

#Heat and mass transfer calculations for shell and tube heat exchangers can be used for sizing.

#Plate heat exchangers can also be used with this same concept.

Applications

Projects

Cold

Drinking Water

Heat Recovery

Power

Solar

Thermal Chemical Recuperation

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Independent Testing

An independent testing laboratory tested the Coolerado Cooler which uses the Maisotsenko Cycle. The results show that the product air is up to 22 percent below the wet bulb temperature, and to within 85 percent of the dew point temperature.

The M-Cycle assists Federal agencies reach their energy-use reduction goals and it has been successfully tested and researched for cooling applications by NREL (FEMP), Delphi, SMUD, PG&E, Sanwa, etc

Patents

Maisotsenko

Method and Apparatus of Indirect-Evaporation Cooling US Patent # 6,497,107

Abstract: The within invention improves on the indirect evaporative cooling method and apparatus by making use of a working fluid that is pre-cooled with and without desiccants before it is passed through a Wet Channel where evaporative fluid is on the walls to take heat and store it in the working fluid as increased latent heat. The heat transfer across the membrane between the Dry Channel and the Wet Channel may have dry, solid desiccant or liquid desiccant and may have perforations, pores or capillary pathways. The evaporative fluid may be water, fuel, or any substance that has the capacity to take heat as latent heat. The Wet Channel or excess cooled fluid is in heat transfer contact with a Product Channel where Product Fluid is cooled without adding any humidity. An alternative embodiment for heat transfer between adjacent channels is with heat pipes.

Method and Plate Apparatus for Dew Point Evaporative Cooler US Patent # 6,581,402

Abstract: An improved method and apparatus for indirect evaporative cooling of a fluid stream to substantially its dew point temperature. Plate heat exchanger has perforations 11 and channels 3, 4 and 5 for gas or a low temperature for liquids on a dry side and wet side. Fluid streams 1 flow across the dry side 9, transferring heat to the plate. Gas stream 2 flows across the dry side and through perforations to channels 5 on wet side 10, which it then cools by evaporative cooling as well as conductive and radiative transfer of heat from plate. A wicking material provides wetting of wet side. In other embodiments, a desiccant wheel may be used to dehumidify the gas, air streams may be recirculated, feeder wicks 13 and a pump may be used to bring water from a water reservoir, and fans may be used to either force or induce a draft. The wicking material may be cellulose, organic fibers, organic based fibers, polyester, polypropylene, carbon-based fibers, silicon based fibers, fiberglass, or combinations of them. The device may be operated in winter months to scavenge heat from exhaust gases of a space and thus pre-heat fresh air, while simultaneously humidifying the fresh air.

Method and Plate Apparatus for Dew Point Evaporative Cooler Using a Trough Wetting System US Patent # 6,705,096

Abstract: An improved method and apparatus for indirect evaporative cooling of a fluid stream to substantially its dew point temperature. Plate heat exchanger has perforations (11) and channels (3, 4 and 5) for gas on a dry side and wet side. There is a trough formed in a portion of the plate that temporarily holds evaporative fluid which is in contact with the wick material on the wet side surface of the plate. The evaporative fluid flows through the trough by way of liquid perforations into the next trough. The trough of a plate with a wet side up, the liquid perforations are on the side creating a reservoir to wet the opposing wick materials. As streams flow across the dry side (9), transferring heat to the plate. Working gas stream (2) flows across the dry side and through perforations to channels (5) on wet side (10), which it then cools by evaporative cooling as well as conductive and radiative transfer of heat from plate.

Method and Apparatus for Dew Point Evaporative Product Cooling US Patent # 6,776,001

Abstract: The present invention relates to a method and an apparatus for providing enhanced indirect evaporative cooling of air, water, fuel, or other fluids while controlling the humidity. The design makes cooling down to the dew point possible without energy input other than the energy to produce the fluid flow needed. The design makes use of stacked composite plates (7) with channels (1, 2) for fluid flow between adjacent plates. On opposing surface areas of these plates, there are wet areas (4) or dry areas (3). The wet areas (4) provide cooling by conventional evaporation which is in turn used to cool the fluids in contact with the dry areas (3). The benefit is controlled heat transfer, which allows selected cooling of fluid flow such that the temperature as low as dew point are reachable.

Fuel Cell Systems with Evaporative Cooling and Methods for Humidifying and Adjusting the Temperature of the Reactant Streams US Patent # 6,779,351

A fuel cell using fuel and oxidant resulting in the production of water and heat in addition to electrical power. The fuel cell employs an evaporative cooler and has methods to adjust the moisture and temperature for the fuel and oxidant flows to improve the fuel cell efficiency. The water produced by the fuel cell is used to provide the water for wet channels of the evaporative cooler. The evaporative cooler has separate product channels and dry working channels that are cooled by heat transfer across a heat exchanger plate. The heat exchanger plate forms part of each wet working channel on the wet side of the heat exchanger plate and part of the product channel and the dry working channel on the dry side. The fuel passes first through the dry working channel then the wet working channel becoming humidified by the evaporation therein and cooling the heat exchanger plate before going to the anode of the fuel cell. The oxidant is cooled by passing through the product channel before being directed to the cathode. In another embodiment, the evaporative cooler is incorporated with the fuel cell and is formed by an anode separator, with the fuel flowing by a dry side of the heat exchanger plate of the anode separator that is being cooled by the evaporation on the wet side. The evaporation adding moisture to the fuel as it passes by the wet side and the heat exchanger plate cooling the fuel on the dry side.

Method of Evaporative Cooling of a Fluid and Apparatus US Patent # 6,854,278

Abstract: The operating efficiency of indirect evaporative cooling processes and indirect evaporative cooling apparatus employing a dry side channel and a wet side channel separated by a heat exchange plate are improved by placement of holes in the heat exchange plate. Further improvements are obtained when the flow direction in the wet side channel is cross-current to the flow direction in the dry side channel. Placement of desiccant materials in the dry side channel also serve to improve the operating efficiencies of these processes and apparatus.

Evaporative Duplex Counterheat Exchanger US Patent # 6,948,558

Abstract: A duplex exchanger includes first and second heat exchangers each including a main flow channel and a cooperating counterheat channel. The first counterheat channel is joined to the first main flow channel for receiving a cooled primary stream therefrom. The second counterheat channel is also joined to the first main channel splitting the primary stream therefrom. An evaporative coolant is injected into the first counterheat channel, and an evaporative saturant is injected into the second counterheat channel. Heat from the initially hot primary stream in the first exchanger evaporates the coolant in the first counterheat channel for self-cooling the primary stream in the first main channel. Heat from a hot secondary stream channeled through the second main channel evaporates the saturant in the second counterheat channel for adding mass to the primary stream channeled therethrough.

Power System and Method US Patent # 7,007,453

A power system includes a device for extracting energy from a hot gas stream to power a driveshaft. An evaporative duplex counterheat exchanger is disposed in flow communication with the energy extracting device. The duplex exchanger includes a first heat exchanger having a first main flow channel, and a counterheat channel joined in flow communication therewith. A second heat exchanger includes a second main flow channel adjacent the counterheat channel. And, an evaporative fluid is injected into the counterheat channel to evaporatively cool the flow through both main flow channels.

Method and Plate Apparatus for Dew Point Evaporative Cooler US Patent # 7,197,887

Abstract: An improved method and apparatus for indirect evaporative cooling of a fluid stream to substantially its dew point temperature. Plate heat exchanger has perforations 11 and channels 3, 4 and 5 for gas or a low temperature for liquids on a dry side and wet side. Fluid streams 1 flow across the dry side 9, transferring heat to the plate. Gas stream 2 flows across the dry side and through perforations to channels 5 on wet side 10, which it then cools by evaporative cooling as well as conductive and radiative transfer of heat from plate. A wicking material provides wetting of wet side. In other embodiments, a desiccant wheel may be used to dehumidify the gas, air streams may be recirculated, feeder wicks 13 and a pump may be used to bring water from a water reservoir, and fans may be used to either force or induce a draft. The wicking material may be cellulose, organic fibers, organic based fibers, polyester, polypropylene, carbon-based fibers, silicon based fibers, fiberglass, or combinations of them. The device may be operated in winter months to scavenge heat from exhaust gases of a space and thus pre-heat fresh air, while simultaneously humidifying the fresh air.

Awards

Coolerado Cooler won the 2004 R&D 100 award.

The US Green Builder 2006 Top Ten Product award.

The 2007 Sustainable Business Silver Medal of Honor award.

Profiles

Company: Idalex Technologies, Inc.

About

Inventor: Valeriy Maisotsenko

Dr. Valeriy Maisotsenko, former director of the Thermal Physics Research Laboratory in Odessa, Ukraine, brought a new thermodynamic cycle with him when he came to the United States in 1992.

Coverage

In the News

http://coolerado.com/NewsAndNotable/NewsAndNotable.htm

Image:Coolerado 95x95.jpg
Latest: Directory:Home Generation:Air Conditioning > Directory:Evaporative Cooling > Directory:Maisotsenko M-Cycle Coolerado > Coolerado's super-efficient air conditioning expanded to include small residences (Interview with Mike Luby, CEO) - The clever M-cycle system uses consecutive stages of indirect evaporative cooling along with a heat exchanger so that the humid air does not enter the building but is effectively cooled while using as little as 10% as much energy as the traditional air conditioner. (PESN Sept. 3, 2009) (Comment)
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Coolerado Wins UC Davis Air Conditioning Prize - The Coolerado system uses a form of indirect evaporative cooling that relies on the Maisotsenko Cycle in which outside air is humidified and then de-humidified through a series of plastic plates. Expecting to ship later this year, the unit could cut the power consumed by air conditioners on top of big box retailers by over 50 percent. (Green Tech Media August 17, 2009)

Solar Air Conditioner Is Too Good To Be True - The Coolerado draws four gallons of water every hour that it operates. (EcoGeek 05 March 2009)

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Getting Close to Solar Powered Air Conditioning - Coolerado Coolers offers a low energy evaporative air conditioning unit that delivers up to 5 tons of cooling while drawing only 1200 watts, a power load that can easily be handled by a solar installation. The company has built a solar powered one ton unit that draws only 36 watts. (TreeHugger Jun. 11, 2007)

Other Coverage

Rex Research - Valeriy MAISOTSENKO M-CYCLE (Indirect Evaporative Cooling).

Testimonials

Las Vegas animal shelter uses Coolerado

On July 17, 2009, New Energy Congress member, Congress:Member:Gary Vesperman wrote:

The Lied animal shelter here in Las Vegas, Nevada employs the Coolerado technology to cool their animal pens. The shelter's web site is http://www.liedanimalshelter.org

Last August John Martens, a trained HVAC technician, and I toured the facility, univited. We climbed ladders to get up on the roof to look at the heat exchanger towers. We managed to coax an employee to unlock and show us the Coolerado control room. Since it was a typically hot 100+ Las Vegas summer afternoon, we carefully examined the temperatures and air flows of the dog and cat pens.

We came away satisfied that the Coolerado was adequately keeping the pens cool enough to be tolerable by the animals. However, I vaguely remember that John spotted a possible improvement.

Searching their web site's videos and photos, the best description I could find of their Coolerado implementation was the "hybrid ventilation concept" portion of http://www.liedanimalshelter.org/documents/Presentation%20Booklet_small.pdf

If anyone wants to call and ask technical questions about the shelter's Coolerado, I would call either the shelter's architect or the Coolerado company in Arvada, Colerado.

Notice in the videos and photos that the shelter also has an array of about a dozen large photovoltaic arrays mounted above the walkways on columns between the buildings.

Comments

See Talk:Directory:Maisotsenko M-Cycle Coolerado

Contact

Contact

Coolerado LLC

4700 West 60th Avenue

Unit 3

Arvada, CO, USA 80003

Phone: 303-375-0878

Fax: 303-375-1693

E-Mail: [mailto:CustomerService@Coolerado.com?subject=Maisotsenko_M-Cycle_Coolerado_featured_at_PESWiki.com CustomerService@Coolerado.com]

See also

Directory:Evaporative Cooling

Directory:Refrigeration

Directory:Home Generation:Air Conditioning

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