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Article:The Impossible Beryllium

Lasted edited by Andrew Munsey, updated on June 14, 2016 at 9:38 pm.

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To: Dr. Brian Josephson, Nobel Prize in Physics

Cc:

Dr. Attila Csoto

Dr. Nicholas Stone - nuclear tables, Clarendon Laboratory

Dr. Will Williams - Smith College Experimental Atomic Physics Lab

Dear Dr. Brian Josephson,

in your review for my book “The Evolution of Physics” published in Amazon.com you wrote :

“…the author has provided a source for zero magnetic moment in the ground state, and it is the additional assertion that this particular state has non-zero spin that is in error. His error lies in the assumption that as nuclei _can_ rotate they must _be rotating_, which is clearly not the case. There is absolutely no mystery about the zero magnetic moment -- it is to be expected for symmetry reasons in a state with zero spin, no detailed calculation being necessary. These nuclei do have rotational excited states, but in their ground state they do not rotate and have spherical symmetry”.

http://www.amazon.com/Evolution-Physics-Newton-Rossis-eCat-ebook/dp/B00UDU8978/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1433986119&sr=1-1&keywords=guglinski

Actually, according to the Standard Nuclear Physics any nucleus in the ground state does not rotate.

Then let us analyse the isotope 4Be7, by considering that it has no rotation in the ground state.

The electric quadrupole moment for 4Be7 is not quoted in any nuclear table.

Ahead is a sequence of emails exchanged between me and Dr. Attila Csoto in 2013.

.===============================================

From: wladimirguglinski@hotmail.com

To: csoto@matrix.elte.hu

Subject: measurement of the 4Be7 quadrupole moment

Date: Mon, 5 Aug 2013 08:28:02 -0300

Dear Dr. Attila Csoto

In the paper Effects of 8B size on the low-energy 7Be(p ?)8B cross section published in 1998 the value calculated for the quadrupole moment of the 4Be7 is between -6fm^2 and -7fm^2 .

http://cds.cern.ch/record/344733/files/9802003.pdf

In the page 5 of the paper it is written:

——————————————-

We note again that a measurement of the 7Be quadrupole moment would place some additional constraints on the consistency of our calculations.

For the complete 4He+3He+p model calculation the simultaneous reproduction of the indicators predict Q7 to be in the range ?(5:5?6:0) e fm2. However, this value is smaller than the one (Q7= ?6:9 e fm2[9]) obtained if we chose the cluster size parameters such to reproduce the quadrupole moment of the analog nucleus 7Li. Does this already point to the necessity of a further enlargement of the model space beyond the 4He + 3He + p three-cluster model which would then also efect our results obtained for 7Be, e.g., change the 7Be quadrupole moment ?

——————————————-

I would like to know if along the 15 years after the publication the quadrupole moment of 4Be7 has been measured and the value is situated near to -6fm^2 or -7fm^2.

Regards

Wladimir Guglinski

.===============================================

His reply :

.===============================================

From: csoto@matrix.elte.hu

Subject: Re: measurement of the 4Be7 quadrupole moment

To: wladimirguglinski@hotmail.com

Date: Mon, 5 Aug 2013 15:26:07 +0200

Dear Wladimir,

No, it has not been measured yet. The charge radius of Be7 was measured a few years ago.

Best ragards, Attila Csoto

.===============================================

.===============================================

From: wladimirguglinski@hotmail.com

To: csoto@matrix.elte.hu

Subject: RE: measurement of the 4Be7 quadrupole moment

Date: Tue, 6 Aug 2013 07:14:40 -0300

Dear Dr. Attila

You and Dr. Karlheinz Langanke have emphasized in many papers the importance of the measurement of the quadrupole moment of the 4Be7.

In the paper Solar Neutrinos: Where We Are, What We Need John Bahcall explains the importance of the measurement of the quadrupole moment of the 7Be for the understanding of the sun shines by nuclear fusion reactions among light elements in its interior.

http://www.sns.ias.edu/~jnb/Papers/Preprints/Groningen/paper.pdf

In the paper he says:

"A measurement of the 7Be quadrupole moment would help distinguish between different nuclear models for the 7Be(p,g)8B reaction (see 38).

38. A. Csoto, K. Langanke, S. E. Koonin, and T. D. Shoppa, Phys. Rev. C. 52 , 1130 (1995)

Therefore, as it is very important to know the experimental value of the quadrupole moment of the 7Be for the understanding of the nuclear fusion reactions in the interior of the sun, I dont understand why the experimental physicists have neglected to undertake the measuremnt of the 7Be quatrupole moment.

I supposse they would have to give priority to measure it, because the advancement of our understanding of the stars nuclear reactions depends on the the measurement of the quadrupole moment of 7Be.

regards

Wladimir Guglinski

.===============================================

His reply:

.===============================================

From: csoto@matrix.elte.hu

Subject: Re: measurement of the 4Be7 quadrupole moment

To: wladimirguglinski@hotmail.com

Date: Tue, 6 Aug 2013 14:23:12 +0200

Dear Wladimir,

There are thousands of measurable physical quantities, which have never been measured, although some people might think they would be important to know. I guess that the experimentalists simply don't find it that interesting to measure the quadrupole moment of Be7.

Or there is a technical problem, that I am not aware of (Be7 is radioactive, but that alone should not be a big problem). Time will come though, when someone will do the measurement. As it happend, for example, with the charge radius. We are pretty sure, that Q(Be7) has a large negative value.

Best regads, Attila Csoto

.===============================================

.===============================================

From: wladimirguglinski@hotmail.com

To: csoto@matrix.elte.hu

Subject: RE: measurement of the 4Be7 quadrupole moment

Date: Tue, 6 Aug 2013 14:14:16 -0300

Dear Dr. Attila

I suspect that 4Be7 has a quadrupole momet very near to zero, and this is the reason why it is not quoted in the nuclear tables.

So, I suspect that the experimentalists had already measured its quadrupole moment. But as it is very close to zero, the experiments cannot supply any value.

regards

Wladimir Guglinski

.===============================================

His reply:

.===============================================

From: csoto@matrix.elte.hu

Subject: Re: measurement of the 4Be7 quadrupole moment

To: wladimirguglinski@hotmail.com

Date: Tue, 6 Aug 2013 19:53:19 +0200

Dear Wladimir,

This is definitely not the case. A measured value, however small it is, would have been published and quoted (see case of the very small Li6 quadrupole moment).

Best regards, Attila Csoto

.===============================================

.===============================================

From: wladimirguglinski@hotmail.com

To: csoto@matrix.elte.hu

Subject: RE: measurement of the 4Be7 quadrupole moment

Date: Tue, 6 Aug 2013 16:29:22 -0300

Dear Dr. Attila

I know the value of the 3Li6 quadrupole moment.

I mean to say that I suspect that 4Be7 has a quadrupole moment very very close to zero, not able to be detected by the accuraccy of the experiments.

regards

Wladimir Guglinski

.===============================================

His reply:

.===============================================

From: csoto@matrix.elte.hu

Subject: Re: measurement of the 4Be7 quadrupole moment

To: wladimirguglinski@hotmail.com

Date: Wed, 7 Aug 2013 16:07:21 +0200

Dear Wladimir,

No. In such a case, they would give Q=0+-0.1 mb, or whatever the accuracy of the measurement is. Trust me, there have been no such experiment. The quadrupole moment of Li7, the mirror nucleus, is known. It is around -40 mb, in good agreement with theoretical predictions, that give roughly -60 mb for Be7.

Best regads, Attila Csoto

.===============================================

.===============================================

From: wladimirguglinski@hotmail.com

To: csoto@matrix.elte.hu

Subject: RE: measurement of the 4Be7 quadrupole moment

Date: Thu, 8 Aug 2013 18:58:26 -0300

Dear Dr. Attila

in such a case several isotopes like 2He4, 4Be8, 6C12, 8O16, 10Ne20, 12Mg24, 14Si28, etc., would give Q = 0+-0.1mb, or whatever the accuracy of the measurement is.

regards

Wladimir Guglinski

.===============================================

His reply:

.===============================================

From: csoto@matrix.elte.hu

Subject: Re: measurement of the 4Be7 quadrupole moment

To: wladimirguglinski@hotmail.com

Date: Fri, 9 Aug 2013 07:02:26 +0200

They are exactly zero, of course.

.===============================================

.===============================================

From: wladimirguglinski@hotmail.com

To: csoto@matrix.elte.hu

Subject: RE: measurement of the 4Be7 quadrupole moment

Date: Fri, 9 Aug 2013 10:00:35 -0300

No,

dear Dr. Attila.

Light nuclei with Z=pair and A= pair , like 8O16, 10Ne20, etc, have not Q(b)=0, because they are non-spherical, as shown in the paper How Atomic Nuclei Cluster:

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v487/n7407/full/nature11246.html

So, as they are non-spherical, they have not a spherical distrubution of charges.

However, as they have nuclear spin zero and magnetic moment zero, there is no way to align them along an external magnetic field in the experiments. So, their statistical behavior is like if they had Q(b)=0, but actually they have not Q(b)=0.

.===============================================

His reply:

.===============================================

From: csoto@matrix.elte.hu

Subject: Re: measurement of the 4Be7 quadrupole moment

To: wladimirguglinski@hotmail.com

Date: Fri, 9 Aug 2013 15:56:02 +0200

Note, that after the model nuclei in the Nature paper are built up from the clusters, the wave function must undergo a rotation, to project out the correct spin, resulting in a spherical shape. For example, even though it is known, that the second 0+ state of C12 is a linear chain of three alpha particles, after rotating this state to project out the zero spin, you end up with a spherical shape. Besides, He4 and O16 on your list are double magic, the most perfect spheres in nuclear physics. But we went far from the original problem. You have strange ideas of how experimental physics works, if you believe that someone measured the quadrupole moment of Be7, found it very small, and therefore did not publish the result. It does not work that way. If they could measure a value, then they would publish it. If they found that the quardupole moment was smaller than what they could measure, then they would give an upper limit (like I said, 0+-0.1, or something like that).

.===============================================

.===============================================

From: wladimirguglinski@hotmail.com

To: csoto@matrix.elte.hu

Subject: RE: measurement of the 4Be7 quadrupole moment

Date: Sat, 10 Aug 2013 10:59:32 -0300

Dear Dr. Attila

the experimentalists do not take in consideration the theoretical prediction based on current nuclear models so that to quote the values in the nuclear tables.

They are interested only in the results of the experiments.

For example, when they had measured the quadrupole moment of nuclei as 8O16, 10Ne20, etc, the theoretical prediction was not taken in consideration.

Therefore the quadrupole moment of those nuclei would have to be quoted by 0+-0.1 in the nuclear table.

But let's forget such question. The imporant matter is to get the measurement of 4Be7, or, in the case it was already measured, to discover if it really has Q(b)=0, as I suspect.

Dont you know any experimentalist in your university, so that to ask him ?

The response for such question is very important for the development of Theorecal Physics.

regards

Wladimir Guglinski

.===============================================

His reply:

===================================

From: csoto@matrix.elte.hu

Subject: Re: measurement of the 4Be7 quadrupole moment

To: wladimirguglinski@hotmail.com

Date: Sat, 10 Aug 2013 16:23:52 +0200

You quoted the calculations in Nature, remember? I just corrected you, saying that even a linear chain of alpha particles becomes a sphere, after you project out the correct quantum number. The figures in the Nature paper show the structure before this projection.

Experimentallists have measured the spins of those nuclei, which imply strong symmetries not just in theoretical models, but also in nature. Believe me, you can't find an experimentallist who want to measure the quadrupole moment of a spin zero nucleus, because he knows that it is zero.

.===============================================

.===============================================

From: wladimirguglinski@hotmail.com

To: csoto@matrix.elte.hu

Subject: RE: measurement of the 4Be7 quadrupole moment

Date: Mon, 12 Aug 2013 11:04:01 -0300

Dear Dr. Attila

I am not speaking about to measure the quadrupole moment of spin zero nuclei. I am spealing about to measure the quadrupole moment of 4Be7, which obviously is crucial for the advancement of Theoretical Nuclear Physics.

There is need to eliminate the controversy about the quadrupole moment of 4Be7, dont you think so?

Dont you know an experimentalist so that to ask him to make the measurement ?

regards

Wladimir Guglinski

.===============================================

His reply:

.===============================================

From: csoto@matrix.elte.hu

Subject: Re: measurement of the 4Be7 quadrupole moment

To: wladimirguglinski@hotmail.com

Date: Mon, 12 Aug 2013 16:41:41 +0200

There is no controversy with the Be7 quadrupole moment. Theoretical models agree that it has a large negative value. It has not been measured yet.

.===============================================

Well,

it seems that what Dr. Csoto claims makes no sense, because the quadrupole moment for 3Li7 was measured. So, why it cannot be measured for 4Be7, since they are mirror nuclei?

Probably it was measured, but the result was not published. However the reason why it was not published is not as Dr. Csoto has wrongly supposed, when he said:

“You have strange ideas of how experimental physics works, if you believe that someone measured the quadrupole moment of Be7, found it very small, and therefore did not publish the result.”

The true reason is because the experimentalists know that 4Be7 must have a big negative quadrupole moment, by considering the current nuclear models. But because the experiments give a value very near to zero, the experimentalists suppose that something is wrong in the procedure used in their experiments. And that’s why they decide do not publish the value near to zero measured in their experiments, because they are afraid to expose their credibility if they publish an absurd result, impossible according to the current Standard Model.

In order to try to discover the true, I sent an email to Dr. Nicholas Stone, the publisher of nuclear tables:

.===============================================

From: wladimirguglinski@hotmail.com

To: n.stone1@physics.ox.ac.uk

Subject: quadrupole electric moment of 4Be7

Date: Sat, 7 Sep 2013 19:36:01 -0300

Dear Dr. Nicholas Stone

The Nuclear Table published by Clarendon Laboratory gives the nuclear spin and magnetic moment of the nucleus 4Be7, respectivelly 3/2 and -1,398:

http://faculty.missouri.edu/~glaserr/8160f09/STONE_Tables.pdf

But the quadrupole electric moment of the 4Be7 is not quoted.

May you tell me why ?

Regards

Wladimir Guglinski

.===============================================

His reply:

.===============================================

From: n.stone1@physics.ox.ac.uk

To: wladimirguglinski@hotmail.com

Subject: RE: quadrupole electric moment of 4Be7

Date: Sun, 8 Sep 2013 10:22:09 +0000

Dear Dr Guglinski,

To give you a quick answer – I have no record of a measurement of Q for 7Be. Do you have a reference to a publication? I am aware of the magnetic moment result PRL 101 212502 Okada et al and of the more recent one by Nortershauser et al PRL 102 062503.

Yours,

Nick Stone

.===============================================

.===============================================

From: Wladimir Guglinski [mailto:wladimirguglinski@hotmail.com]

Sent: 08 September 2013 07:53

To: Nick Stone

Subject: RE: quadrupole electric moment of 4Be7

Dear Dr. Stone

No, I dont have any reference.

Actually I dont understand why there is not a record of Q for 4Be7, because along 20 years some theorists have enphasized the importance of getting its measurement.

In the paper Solar Neutrinos: Where We Are, What We Need , published in 1998 byJohn Bahcall , he explains the importance of the measurement of the quadrupole moment for 7Be for the understanding of the sun shines by nuclear fusion reactions among light elements in its interior.

http://www.sns.ias.edu/~jnb/Papers/Preprints/Groningen/paper.pdf

In the paper he says:

“A measurement of the 7Be quadrupole moment would help distinguish between different nuclear models for the 7Be(p,g)8B reaction (see 38) ”.

38. A. Csoto, K. Langanke, S. E. Koonin, and T. D. Shoppa, Phys. Rev. C. 52 , 1130 (1995)

Csoto and Langanke had published several papers along 20 years, where they explain the importance of the measurement of Q for 7Be. In a paper publihed in 2008 they write in the page 6:

We also note that a precise measurement of the 7Be quadrupole moment or radius could test the self-consistency of our conclusions.

http://arxiv.org/pdf/nucl-th/9408001.pdf

So, I dont understand why we dont know the Q for 7Be yet.

Is not possible to measure it in the Clarendon Laboratory ?

Regards

Wladimir Guglinski

.===============================================

His reply:

.===============================================

From: n.stone1@physics.ox.ac.uk

To: wladimirguglinski@hotmail.com

Subject: RE: quadrupole electric moment of 4Be7

Date: Sun, 8 Sep 2013 12:37:54 +0000

Hi, Quadrupole moments are particularly hard to measure in light nuclei since they are small and so produce small energy splittings which require very high resolution. The 9Be Q was measured by atomic beam which has the highest resolution. Laser spectroscopy would probably not be good enough.

Further, theoreticians can call all they like, but it doesn’t provide a method for the measurement.

I’m now retired. There is no experimental group at the Clarendon that could attempt the measurement.

Your best bet would seem to be the Japanese groups with some variant of beta NMR, but I haven’t checked if there is suitable beta decay in 7Be.

.===============================================

.===============================================

From: wladimirguglinski@hotmail.com

To: n.stone1@physics.ox.ac.uk

Subject: RE: quadrupole electric moment of 4Be7

Date: Sun, 8 Sep 2013 11:31:27 -0300

Hi, Dr Stone

I suspect that 7Be has Q very near to zero, that's why it is not quoted in nuclear tables.

I suspect that the experimentalist already had tried to measure it, and they had expected to measure a value near to the value of Q for 9Be (0,053 barns).

As the experimentists did not succeed to get a value far away from zero (and as they know that from the theoretical viewpoint 7Be cannot have Q very near to zero) then they did not report the results of experiments.

Dr. Attila Csolo had calculated theoretically that Q for 7Be must be in order of 0,07barns.

I have my suspiction because of the following:

9Be is stable

7Be has half-life of 53 days

Both them are very small

Q for 9Be had been measured by atomic beam, and got 0,053 barns.

CONCLSUSION : why cannot the Q for 7Be be measured by atomic beam ?

So, I suspect that Q for 7Be had already been measured by atomic beam (like done for 9Be), but the experiments had NOT detected a value far away of zero (as expected theoretically).

Do you think that my suspiction can explain why Q for 7Be is not quoted in nuclear tables?

Regards

Wladimir Guglinski

.===============================================

His reply:

.===============================================

From: n.stone1@physics.ox.ac.uk

To: wladimirguglinski@hotmail.com

Subject: RE: errata: FW: quadrupole electric moment of 4Be7

Date: Sun, 8 Sep 2013 15:48:54 +0000

Just to say that IF a measurement had been made, it would certainly have been published.

.===============================================

I felt that Dr. Stone could not help me to discover the true about the missing of measurements for the 4Be7 quadrupole moment, and so I did not send any reply, and the exchange of emails was over. But after 2 years, now in 2015 a new table was published by Dr. Stone.

Then I sent him the email ahead, in 3 June 2015:

.===============================================

From: wladimirguglinski@hotmail.com

To: n.stone1@physics.ox.ac.uk

Subject: RE: quadrupole electric moment of 4Be7

Date: Wed, 3 Jun 2015 13:27:31 -0300

Dear Dr. Stone

is the electric quadrupole moment for the 4Be7 quoted in the "New table of recommended nuclear electric quadrupole moments", published by Springer in 2015?

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10751-014-1094-8

regards

Wladimir Guglinski

.===============================================

He did not reply.

But in 8 June 2015 I have discovered that Dr. Will Williams of the Smith College had announced in 2014 his aim of measuring the quadrupole moment for the 4Be7, and then I sent him the following email:

.===============================================

From: wladimirguglinski@hotmail.com

To: wwilliams@smith.edu

Subject: electric quadrupole moment for beryllium-7

Date: Mon, 8 Jun 2015 21:25:25 -0300

Dear Prof. Will Williams

In the page of the Smith College Experimental Atomic Physics Laboratory,

http://sophia.smith.edu/blog/williamslab/research/beryllium-spectroscopy/

it is written:

"Here are some fairly technical notes on what we plan to do:

Determine the still unmeasured nuclear electric quadrupole moment for beryllium-7, which gives us information about the charge distribution inside the nucleus."

I would like to know if the electric quadrupole moment for 4Be7 was measured.

Regards

Wladimir Guglinski

.===============================================

He did not reply.

Prof. Nathanael Fortune works in other laboratory at the Smith College, and I asked him the favour to verify why Dr. Will Williams did not reply to my email. He sent me the following reply:

.===============================================

Date: Tue, 9 Jun 2015 17:25:39 -0400

Subject: Re: electric quadrupole moment for beryllium-7

From: nfortune@smith.edu

To: wladimirguglinski@hotmail.com

Sorry, I've helped you as much as I can. Perhaps he is on vacation. It is his project - I don't know the status.

Professor Nathanael Fortune, Ph.D.

Department of Physics

315 McConnell Hall

44 College Lane

Smith College

Northampton MA 01063

.===============================================

I tried to get a reply by Dr. Chui Yu Lau. I did not find her email, but I found her in the Linkedin. She and Dr. Will Williams have published the paper “High Precision Spectroscopy of Neutral Beryllium-9”:

http://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/DAMOP15/Session/Q1.133

In the Abstract they say:

“The goal for the 2s2p singlet (J=1) state is to improve the experimental precision on the energy level by a factor of 600 as a test of quantum electrodynamics.”

So, they are testing the predictions of quantum electrodynamics, and cannot succeed to measure the quadrupole for 4Be7???

It is hard to believe it.

However, unfortunately Dr. Chui Yu Lau also did not reply to me.

So, it seems there is no doubt that the quadrupole moment for 4Be7 was already measured, the experiments got values near to zero, but the experimentalists believe that something is going wrong with the procedure of the measurement in their experiments, because 4Be7 cannot have quadrupole moment near to zero, because it impossible by considering the models based on the Standard Model. Then all them decide do not publish their measurements.

But a question arises: since 4Be7 cannot have Q near to zero, but the experiments show that it has Q near to zero, how does to explain it?

The value of Q for 4Be7 near to zero can be explained only by considering the rotation of the nucleus in the ground state. This is shown in the Figure 37 at the page 48 of the paper Stability of Light Nuclei, published in the Journal of Nuclear Physics:

http://www.journal-of-nuclear-physics.com/?p=802

If the 4Be7 had no rotation in the ground state, its quadrupole moment would be a little positive, as we see in the Figure 37:

Image:Structure of 4Be7.png

But 4Be7 in the ground state has rotation. And in the Figure 37 we see that there is an unbalance of masses regarding the y-axis (about which the nucleus rotates). So, due to the rotation the nucleus has a shake along the x-axis, giving a contribution for negative Q.

The resultant due to the positive and negative contributions is a value of Q near to zero.

As you know, Dr. Josephson, the rotation of the nuclei in the ground state cannot be considered in the Standard Nuclear Physics, because the rotation of the charge of the protons would induce a magnetic moment, and therefore the even-even nuclei with Z=N would have to have non-null magnetic moment. But the experiments have detected that they have null magnetic moment.

However,

the rotation of the nuclei in the ground state is impossible according to the Standard Model because the nuclear theorists do not consider the contribution of the structure of the space for the production of the nuclear properties.

By considering a nuclear model where the structure of the space is taking in consideration, the rotation of the nuclei in the ground state is perfectly explained, as I show ahead.

Look at the structure of the proton in the Figure 1, proposed in my book Quantum Ring Theory:

Image:FIGURE 1.png

All the nuclei have a central 2He4, whose strings of gravitions (flux of gravitons) are able to capture protons and neutrons. The Figure 2 shows the two sort of spins UP and DOWN of the proton when it is captured by the flux of gravitons.

Image:FIGURE 2.png

The Figure 3 shows what happens when the first proton is captured by the central 2He4, and they form the 3Li5. As explained in that figure, the capture of the proton by the 2He4 induces a rotation in the newborn 3Li5, due to the combination of the directions of the flux of gravitons, the rotation of the proton, and the motion of the electricitons in the proton’s electric field.

Figure 3 also explains that, when a second proton is captured by the central 2He4 and they form the 4Be6, the second proton induces a rotation in the newborn 4Be6 in the same direction induced by the capture of the first proton.

Therefore all the nuclei have rotation in the ground state.

Image:FIGURE 3.png

Figure 4 shows why even-even nuclei with Z=N have null magnetic moment, in spite of they have rotation in the ground state.

Image:FIGURE 4.png

In the homepage of the Williams Lab at the Smith College , Dr. Will Williams says:

“The beryllium spectroscopy project is a fundamental (or pure) physics project. Fundamental physics is concerned with understanding why nature behaves the way it does. This is the type of physics most physicists study. Every physics professor at Smith College has a fundamental research project.”

Perhaps the physicists of the Smith College have decided to create the “beryllium spectroscopy project” because the beryllium isotopes are proving that the Standard Nuclear Physics cannot be correct. Indeed, if the Standard Model was correct, some beryllium isotopes would be impossible to exist. Let us remember the beryllium isotopes which defy the current nuclear models:

4Be7- Along more than 30 years the experimentalists did not succeed to measure the value of the quadrupole moment for the 4Be7 as predicted by the Standard Nuclear Physics. All the measurements got value near to zero, which is impossible according to the Standard Model.

4Be8- While all the even-even nuclei with Z=N are stable, the beryllium-8 is the only unstable nucleus, and there is no way to explain why, by considering the laws of Standard Model.

The reason why 4Be8 is unstable is shown in the page 17 and 18 of the paper Stability of Light Nuclei, published in the Rossi’s Journal of Nuclear Physics:

http://www.journal-of-nuclear-physics.com/?p=802

4Be11- In 2009 a experiment has shown that protons and neutrons cannot be bound via strong force within the nuclei: “Atomic nucleus of beryllium is three times as large as normal due to halo”.

http://www.uni-mainz.de/eng/13031.php

4Be12- In 2012 a new experiment has shown that the Shell model (used by the nuclear physicists so that to explain many nuclear properties of several nuclei) cannot be correct, because if the Shell mode was correct the 4Be12 could not exist with the structure detected in the experiment: End of the magic: Shell model for beryllium isotopes invalidated

http://phys.org/news/2012-04-magic-shell-beryllium-isotopes-invalidated.html

The exotic structure of the 4Be12 is shown in the Chapter 20.4 of my book The Evolution of Physics, published in Amazon.com, where it is shown why 4Be12 cannot be explained by considering the nuclear models based on the Standard Model. The Chapter 20.4 is reproduced ahead:

.===================================================.

20.4- The puzzle of the exotic structure of 4Be12

A new experiment published in 2012 had shown that 4Be12 has a structure impossible to be explained from the principles of current Nuclear Physics. See End of the magic: Shell model for beryllium isotopes invalidated:

http://phys.org/news/2012-04-magic-shell-beryllium-isotopes-invalidated.html

By considering the structure proposed by Wilfried Nörtershäuse in that paper it's impossible to explain the null magnetic moment for the nucleus 4Be12. Indeed, look at to the structure he proposed:

Image:FIGURE 20.4-1.png

The orbit radius of a nucleon (proton or neutron) defines its g-factor. The longer is the radius of the orbit, larger is the g-factor. The neutrons n-1 and n-2 have an orbit radius longer than the orbit radius of the neutrons n-3 and n-4 , and therefore the g-factor for n-1 and n-2 is different of the g-factor for n-3 and n-4. Therefore the structure proposed by Nörtershäuse is incompatible with the null magnetic moment for the 4Be12, detected by experiments. So, there is no way to explain the structure of 4Be12 detected in the experiment published in 2012 by considering the current nuclear models.

The structure for 4Be12 according to Quantum Ring Theory is shown in the figure:

Image:FIGURE 20.4-2.png

Consider that the neutrons (N-1 , N-2) have an orbit radius RN , and the deuteron D-1 has an orbit radius RD . The radius RN of the two neutrons is a little longer, RN > RD , because:

a) N-1 and N-2 are not submitted to a magnetic force of attraction with the central 2He4, because they have no charge

b) the deuteron D-1 is attracted with the central 2He4 by a magnetic force, because of the electric charge of the proton

c) due to the centripetal force (because of the nucleus rotation), the neutrons N-1,N-2 get a little longer orbit radius RN about the central 2He4

d) so, while the neutrons N-1 and N-2 are submitted to only the centripetal force, the deuteron D-1 is submitted to a magnetic force in contrary direction of the centripetal force on it, and that's why the two neutrons N-1 and N-2 take an orbit radius a little longer than the orbit radius of the deuteron.

e) as the two neutrons N-1 and N-2 are kept in the structure of the 4Be12 thanks to their strong-spin-interaction with the deuteron D-1, and they are submitted to the centripetal force, they get a little longer orbit radius.

The same happens with the orbit radius RN of the neutrons N-3,N-4 , compared with the radius RD of the deuteron D-2. Therefore, according to QRT it is possible to explain very well the existence of neutrons with a little longer orbit radius in the 4Be12.

.===================================================.

Fortunately,

there are scientists as Dr. Will Williams interested in discovering “why nature behaves the way it does”. I hope scientists as Dr. Williams will finally understand that it makes no sense to try to discover why the nature behaves the way it does if they continue trying to explain the phenomena by considering the empty space without structure. The experiment published in 2011 by the journal Nature has proven that the space is no empty, and so it must have a structure: Moving mirrors make light from nothing

http://www.nature.com/news/2011/110603/full/news.2011.346.html

A New Physics must be developed by considering the contribution of the structure of the space on the process of “why nature behaves the way it does”. After all, as the nature behaves the way it does by using the contribution of the structure of the non-empty space, it makes no sense to try to discover the way it does by neglecting the contribution of the structure of the non-empty space. From such an attempt it is impossible to understand the way it does.

Dear Dr. Josephson,

I suppose that I don’t need to tell you that in the case the nuclear structure of atomic nuclei existing in the nature is like the structure proposed in my book Quantum Ring Theory, and therefore all the nuclei have rotation in the ground state, then of course the nuclear theorists will never succeed to explain “why nature behaves the way it does”, in the case of the atomic nuclei. And it is also is obvious that, if really all the nuclei rotate in the ground state, this is the reason why the Standard Nuclear Physics has failed along more than a hundred years to describe the nuclear properties of several nuclei, in special of the light nuclei, as the beryllium isotopes.

Regards

Wlad

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