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Article:The Electret Effect

Lasted edited by Andrew Munsey, updated on June 14, 2016 at 9:24 pm.

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This is more or less a placeholder at the moment. Most of the contents were moved to: Article:Free Electric Energy in Theory and Practice because the title did no longer cover the substance....

What's left here are references and discussion extracts about the electret effect, which may be used to write this article later.

Tesla's stinging discovery

Note: this is more or less just a placeholder. The idea was to explain here that longitudinal electric waves, the phenomenon also known as gravity or etherwind, is hard to measure. Tesla discovered that you can measure these when they are "sharp spikes", basically the same thing as you can find in Dr. Stiffler's SEC circuit. So, not much to see here, yet...

Nikola Tesla is without doubt one of the greatest inventors of all times. He did many discoveries. One of the most interesting ones is the discovery of the power of electrostatic impulses:

''Tesla observed that instantaneous applications of either direct or alternat­ing current to lines often caused explosive effects. While these had obvious practical applications in improvement and safety, Tesla was seized by certain peculiar aspects of the phenomenon. He had observed these powerful blasts when knife-switches were quickly closed and opened in his Polyphase Sys­tem. Switch terminals were often blasted to pieces when the speed of the switchman matched the current phase.

''Placing a large glass plate between himself and the exploding wire, he performed the test again. Bang! The wire again turned to vapor...but the pres­sured stinging effect was still felt. But, what was this? How were these sting­ing effects able to penetrate the glass plate? Now he was not sure whether he was experiencing a pressure effect or an electrical one. The glass would have screened any mechanical shrapnel, but would not appreciably shield any elec­trical effects.

''Through careful isolation of each experimental component, Tesla gradu­ally realized that he was observing a very rare electrical phenomenon. Each "bang" produced the same unexpected shock response in Tesla, while exploding small wire sections into vapor. The instantaneous burst produced strange effects never observed with alternating currents. The painful shock­ing sensation appeared each time he closed or opened the switch. These sud­den shock currents were IMPULSES, not alternations. What surprised him was the fact that these needle-like shocks were able to reach him from a distance: he was standing almost ten feet from the discharge site!

''These electrical irritations expanded out of the wire in all directions and filled the room in a mystifying manner. He had never before observed such an effect. He thought that the hot metal vapor might be acting as a "carrier" for the electrical charges. This would explain the strong pressure wave ac­companied by the sensation of electrical shock. He utilized longer wires. When the discharge wire was resistive enough, no explosion could occur.

''Wire in place, the dynamo whirred at a slower speed. He threw the switch for a brief instant, and was again caught off guard by the stinging pressure wave! The effect persisted despite the absence of an explosive conductor. Here was a genuine mystery. Hot vapor was not available to "carry" high voltage charges throughout the room. No charge carriers could be cited in this instance to explain the stinging nature of the pressure wave. So what was happening here?

''The shock effects were felt far beyond the visible spark terminations. This seemed to indicate that their potential was far greater than the voltage ap­plied to the line. A paradox! The dynamo charge was supplied at a tension of fifteen thousand volts, yet the stinging sparks were characteristics of electro­static discharges exceeding some two hundred fifty thousand volts. Some­how this input current was being transformed into a much higher voltage by an unknown process. No natural explanation could be found. No scientific explanation sufficed. There was simply not enough data on the phenomenon for an answer. And Tesla knew that this was no ordinary phenomenon. Somewhere in the heart of this activity was a deep natural secret. Secrets of this kind always opened humanity into new revolutions.

''Tesla considered this strange voltage multiplying effect from several viewpoints. The problem centered around the fact that there was no magnetic induction taking place. Transformers raise or lower voltage when current is changing. Here were impulses. Change was happening during the impulse. But there was no transformer in the circuit. No wires were close enough for magnetic inductions to take place. Without magnetic induction, there could theoretically be no transformation effect. No conversion from low to high voltage at all. Yet, each switch snap brought both the radiating blue-white sparks and their painful sting.

''High voltage impulse currents produced a hitherto unknown radiant ef­fect. In fact, here was an electrical "broadcast" effect whose implementation in a myriad of bizarre designs would set Tesla apart from all other inventors. This new electrical force effect was a preeminent discovery of great histori­cal significance. Despite this fact, few academicians grasped its significance as such. Focused now on dogmatizing Maxwell's work, they could not ac­cept Tesla's excited announcements. Academes argued that Tesla's effect could not exist. They insisted that Tesla revise his statements.

''Tesla's mysterious effect could not have been predicted by Maxwell be­cause Maxwell did not incorporate it when formulating his equations. How could he have done so, when the phenomenon was just discovered? Tesla now pondered the academic ramifications of this new effect. What then of his own and possibly other electrical phenomena, which were not incorpo­rated into Maxwell's force laws? Would academes now ignore their exist­ence? Would they now even dare to reject the possibility of such phenomena on the basis of an incomplete mathematical description?

Maxwells fundamental mistake

http://www.energeticforum.com/renewable-energy/5009-discussion-re-physics-behind-negative-energy-systems-radiant-spikes.html#post75700

The most essential difference between the classical Maxwell equations and Meyl (and Bearden, I assume) is that Meyl no longer postulates the existence of charge carriers as the cause for the EM fields. In other words: Meyl basically proves that EM fields can exist without any need for matter to be present. EM fields are the cause matter exists and not the other way around. As a result of that, it is clear that both longitudinal and transversal EM waves can exist in vacuum, while in the classical view the former cannot exist, because it is assumed there are no charge-carriers present in the vacuum.

So, essentially, with Meyls Maxwell equations we have a set of equations that describe the propagation of waves trough a medium, which at the same time reflect the characteristics of that medium. And these resemble the characteristics of a fluid/gas very nicely, hence we have basically a description of a fluid/gas like medium we used to call aether.

And on its turn, the waves that flow trough this medium have the ability to form the localised waves we call matter. According to Meyl, matter actually is some kind of vortex and it appears logical to assume that these vortexes can "suck" up some kind of aether energy flow from the environment and convert that into a steady outflowing energy stream known as the electric field. In other words: a charge appears to be some kind of spherical (combination of) aether vortex(es) capable of continously converting some kind of incoming aether energy flow into a "static" electric field. This is an ever-lasting process, which can be considered as a monopole.

However, that "static" field is not static at all. It's a continuous flow of energy. Interestingly, there are two kinds of charges. We call them positive and negative and it appears these generate two distinct kinds of energy flows. One from positive to negative, and one back from negative to positive. When superimposed on one another, these appear to (largely) cancel eachother out in terms of the ability to do work, that is, the ability to apply a resulting force onto free charges (electrons) in order to make them move.

http://www.energeticforum.com/renewable-energy/5050-ether-physics.html#post76533

Note that he says the Maxwell equations "without charge or current". Very interesting, because it is exactly the postulation of the existence of a charge carrier as being the cause of the electromagnetic field that has been shown by Meyl (as well as Bearden) is a fundamental mistake. The fields are the reason matter exists and not the other way around.

So, then, he actually says that what Meyl and Bearden consider as the correct Maxwell equations, are "the same standard wave equation which governs sound waves" and the classic (incorrect!) Maxwell equations are "unique to one reference-frame", because they are tied to charges, matter. In other words: the classic Maxwell equations -- with charge and current -- are implicitly tied to a reference frame, a unique observer, so they are not generally applicaple outside this reference frame, this unique observer tied to these postulated charges you don't even need in the first place.

[...]

With the classic Maxwell equations you apparantly cannot use this simple transform, even though I do not understand this fully yet. But I do know Thornhill dis hid homework and I'm 99% certain he is absolutely right and that [general] relativity should be referred to the trash can.

Extracts of some relevant discussions

Posted by the author

http://www.energeticforum.com/renewable-energy/5009-discussion-re-physics-behind-negative-energy-systems-radiant-spikes.html#post75378 (11-24-2009) - "So, it is the electric field that causes the charges to move (do work), while this same movement of charges (current) kills the very reason of it's existence: the field, or the potential on your battery or generator. If you could somehow use the potential of any dipole without killing it, you could get an infinite energy source. In other words: you have to disconnect "current" from "potential" one way or another. [...] Probably the most important thing to realise is that there are two energy flows in any circuit or wire: 1. the electric (or EM) field(s) - or "radiant energy" as John likes to call it. 2. the current -- charge carriers moving along inside a conductor. The E(M) field comes for free, it's a continous stream of "vacuum energy" being converted by any charge carrier."

http://www.energeticforum.com/renewable-energy/5009-discussion-re-physics-behind-negative-energy-systems-radiant-spikes.html#post75700 (11/26/2009) - "Bearden absolutely has a point in not killing the dipole and that the Maxwell equations are incomplete as taught today. And I believe he is right that this has been done on purpose, even though that is not so relevant in the technical discussion. Anyway, Meyl re-derived the Maxwell equations directly from Faraday's experimental observations and comes to the same result, as far as I understood. So, Meyls work gives a solid foundation of the Maxwell equations as they should be. In essence a straight-forward mathematical exercise without any postulates, based on observed physical measurements. The most essential difference between the classical Maxwell equations and Meyl (and Bearden, I assume) is that Meyl no longer postulates the existence of charge carriers as the cause for the EM fields. In other words: Meyl basically proves that EM fields can exist without any need for matter to be present. EM fields are the cause matter exists and not the other way around. As a result of that, it is clear that both longitudinal and transversal EM waves can exist in vacuum, while in the classical view the former cannot exist, because it is assumed there are no charge-carriers present in the vacuum. So, essentially, with Meyls Maxwell equations we have a set of equations that describe the propagation of waves trough a medium, which at the same time reflect the characteristics of that medium. And these resemble the characteristics of a fluid/gas very nicely, hence we have basically a description of a fluid/gas like medium we used to call aether. And on its turn, the waves that flow trough this medium have the ability to form the localised waves we call matter. According to Meyl, matter actually is some kind of vortex and it appears logical to assume that these vortexes can "suck" up some kind of aether energy flow from the environment and convert that into a steady outflowing energy stream known as the electric field. In other words: a charge appears to be some kind of spherical (combination of) aether vortex(es) capable of continously converting some kind of incoming aether energy flow into a "static" electric field. This is an ever-lasting process, which can be considered as a monopole. However, that "static" field is not static at all. It's a continuous flow of energy. Interestingly, there are two kinds of charges. We call them positive and negative and it appears these generate two distinct kinds of energy flows. One from positive to negative, and one back from negative to positive. When superimposed on one another, these appear to (largely) cancel eachother out in terms of the ability to do work, that is, the ability to apply a resulting force onto free charges (electrons) in order to make them move. Of course, once charges are moving, they are moving in such a direction that these two energy flows eventually balance each other out."

http://www.energeticforum.com/renewable-energy/5009-discussion-re-physics-behind-negative-energy-systems-radiant-spikes.html#post76020 (11-28-2009) - "It is clear that at least most of the charge -- and thus the energy -- is stored inside the dielectricum, but I have a very hard time believing no charge is actually stored on the metal plates at all. In proportion it is just a tiny little bit, but not zero. So, I think on that part, this MIT experiment is not really that shocking. However, what is interesting, is that the dielectricum apparantly is capable of keeping it's charge, even when the metal plates (and therefore: any polarizing external -- to the dielectricum -- electric fields) are removed. [...] If we then take a look back at Inquorate's standing capacitor, it is clear that something similar takes place in both cases. This suggests that once you have a polarized electret in between metal (capacitor) plates, that the electret will charge the plates. Apparantly, some electrons are drifting trough the electret from one plate to the other, such that the plates becomes charged, and we can measure a voltage on the outside. If we once again assume that "radiant" energy basically is the electric field, which can exist without current, without electrons moving around, it appears to be clear that "radiant charging" primarily polarizes the dielectricum and energizes that, while the capacitor plates themselves are charged later by the polarized dielectricum, the elektret. That would explain both effects, as far as I can tell...."

http://www.energeticforum.com/renewable-energy/4910-spontaneous-charging-radiantly-charged-capacitor-research-group-4.html#post76208 (11-30-2009) - "It may be that it is possible to form a (non-permanent?) electret inside (certain types?) of capacitors. The dielectric material inside a capacitor can be polarized using an electric field. When the capacitor discharges, this polarization normally gets lost pretty fast. However, there is a "memory" effect in that the polarization is not immediately gone when a cap is short circuited. This effect is also known as "dielectric relaxation" [...] Now, it appears logical that when the capacitor is charged with high voltage pulses, you perhaps somehow "super polarize" the dielectric. That would mean you can enhance this "dielectric relaxation" effect to such an extent that you practically create a non-permanent electret, that keeps alive much longer then a few microseconds, perhaps up to minutes or even hours."

http://www.energeticforum.com/renewable-energy/5009-discussion-re-physics-behind-negative-energy-systems-radiant-spikes.html#post76243 (11-30-2009) - "After some reading, it seems that the electret theory may very well be the key to understanding Bedini's systems as well as the Tesla switch. Especially this recipe for how to make electrets is so strikingly similar to Bedini's circuits, that it feels like this has to be the answer we have been looking for: http://ether.sciences.free.fr/acrobatfiles/electrets/makinganelectret.pdf - Both this circuit and the fact that some people reported spontaneous recharge of capacitors and/or continuation of the charging of batteries after the power has been switched off point in this direction."

http://www.energeticforum.com/renewable-energy/5096-no-electrolysis-water-split.html#post77866 (12-16-2009) - "It appears that when an insulating layer is formed/added that has the right dielectric features, that it is possible to create a non-permanent electret inside a capacitor due to the so-called "dielectric relaxation" effect, which would mean that you have an electric field in between the capacitor plates which is provided for free by the dielectricum"

http://www.energeticforum.com/renewable-energy/5128-bedini-meyer-capacitors-batteries-electret-effect.html#post78487 (12-22-2009) - "So, basically we have both with Meyer and Bedini technology: 1) forming of thin, polarizable dielectric layers on the plates of either capacitors or battery plates, the latter essentially becoming capacitors, because the dielectric is non-conducting. 2) the use of high voltage "spikes" to form/maintain the polarization of the dielectric, boosting the "dielectric relaxation" effect, essentially turning the dielectricum into a non-permanent electret. 3) COP > 1. 4) "boiling" effects, unwanted in Bedini's technology, while basically utilized by Meyer. All in all, I think both are using the same energy source: the super-polarized dielectricum and that is which is apparantly able to provide excess energy."

http://www.energeticforum.com/renewable-energy/5590-basic-electrolysis-13.html#post102858 (07-07-2010) - "Of course, this may not be the only phenomenon observed, but one thing is certain: Bedini's batteries do "cold boil" after the power has been shut of. In other words: there is at least one known way to split water into hydrogen and oxygen that can last long after any power has been fed into the system. The only way I see to explain that is that a (non permanent) elexctret layer has been formed on the plates inside the batteries, which is basically a polarised insulating layer. One example of such a layer is aluminum oxide, which is actually the dielectric used inside any aluminum based electrolytic capacitor which happens to show similar effects. I.e. "self charging" after having been "conditioned" with Bedini's "radiant" high voltage pulses."

http://www.energeticforum.com/renewable-energy/6227-stan-meyers-secret-preventing-electrolysis.html#post107528 (08-18-2010) - "Coming to think about this, it appears that the reason for having to use pulses for the polarisation of the dielectric is exactly because the fields created by the capacitor plates and the dielectric oppose one another. So, you can only utilise the field created by the dielectric (which extends into the electrolyte fluide) to split water (in the electrolyte) when you discharge the capacitor plates themselves..."

http://www.energeticforum.com/renewable-energy/6227-stan-meyers-secret-preventing-electrolysis-2.html#post107700 (08-19-2010) "There are two half reactions. One of them "eating" electrons, the other delivering electrons. So, in essence all it takes to form a complete reactions is a way to move the electron from where it is freed to where it is used in the other half reaction. Normally, you would do that using an electrical wire, so to speak. However, there also is an effect known as "dielectric breakdown". This means that when a sufficiently strong electric field is applied to a dielectric, it stops being an insulator and becomes an inductor. For water, this happens when field strengths in the order of 30 MV/m, or 30 kV/mm, or 3 kV/ 0.1mm are reached. I should add that the required field strength for dielectric breakdown to occur in water does not necessarily have to be a static field strength. Given the fact that the electric field propagates at the speed of light, one can at least theoretically reach the required field strength with lower voltages, provided one switches fast enough. In other words, one can create a elecrical shockwave where at the wave front you have a very steep change in the field strength. If that would be the case, I would expect that Bedini kind of pulses are more effective than harmonic (sine wave) oscillators, because of the rapid switching provided by the sudden interruption of a current trough a coil. Interestingly, some glowing has been reported by some WFC replicators. This does suggest it is possible to achieve electrolysis by having the electrons jump directly between the two half-reactions taking place inside the fluid. You basically get tiny sparks inside the fluid instead of a current going the long way trough the power supply. It may very well be that there are at least threo ways to induce the required field strength in the fluid: 1) You use really high voltages (> 30 kV/mm) across your capacitor plates. 2) You send a high voltage shock way trough the fluid, which travels trough the whole fluid between the plates. 3) You polarize a thin dielectric layer to such a degree that in its vicinity the electric field is greater than what is required for the water nearby to reach dielectric breakdown. The results posted by different experimentors and/or some patents suggest that all three ways are possible and can be achieved practically."

http://www.energeticforum.com/renewable-energy/6227-stan-meyers-secret-preventing-electrolysis-2.html#post107700 (08-20-2010) - "There are two half reactions. One of them "eating" electrons, the other delivering electrons. So, in essence all it takes to form a complete reactions is a way to move the electron from where it is freed to where it is used in the other half reaction. Normally, you would do that using an electrical wire, so to speak. However, there also is an effect known as "dielectric breakdown". This means that when a sufficiently strong electric field is applied to a dielectric, it stops being an insulator and becomes an inductor."

http://www.energeticforum.com/renewable-energy/6227-stan-meyers-secret-preventing-electrolysis-2.html#post107754 (08-20-2010) - "I know I posted the standard reactions for electrolysis and that was on purpose. Both half reactions are standard redox reactions which do not occur naturally, because it takes energy to take electrons from the negative ions and feed them to the positive ions to keep the reaction going. Normally, you do that using electrodes and a power supply, but there ain't no law of physics that forbids you to perform the exact same reaction more directly using a strong electric field."

http://www.energeticforum.com/renewable-energy/6227-stan-meyers-secret-preventing-electrolysis-2.html#post107759 (08-20-2010) - "What you appear to misunderstand is the question where the current is flowing. Current is nothing more nor less than moving electrons around, which occurs when (free) electrons are subjected to an electric field. What is most common is to have electrons move around in a wire using a power supply, but there are other ways. For example in classic amplifier tubes, there is a heated wire which releases electrons into the vacuum, which are subsequently attracted to the metal shield surrounding the wire and that way you also get a current. Using the same principle, pushing electrons around using an electric field, it is clear that you can also move free electrons around in a fluid, which is a current. It's just that the current remains locally inside the fluid, so you don't provide a current into the fluid yourself trough the terminal contacts. In other words: if you somehow have been able to create free electrons inside your fluid, all it takes to make them flow trough the fluid is an electric field. And as it happens, you can create free electrons inside the fluid pretty easily. Just apply an electric field that is strong enough to rip electrons from the negative ions, a.k.a. "dielectric breakdown"."

http://www.energeticforum.com/renewable-energy/6227-stan-meyers-secret-preventing-electrolysis-3.html#post107866 (08-21-2010) - "Putting these things together, I first of all concluded that in these "conditioned" capacitors the dielectric layer, where the energy is actually stored given the MIT leyden jar experiments, is somehow being super polarized. That means such a very thin dielectric film on the aluminum anode can apparantly be pushed into high gear, which means this super-polarized film you will generate a very strong electric field in its vicinity. Not because there is a high voltage across this dielectric film, but because the film is very thin. Normally, when a electrolytic capacitor is charged, this field is being nutralized, because charges are being drawn towards / pushed away from the surface of this thin film at both sides, until eventually the fields generated by these charges balances the field generated by the dielectric. It is because of these fields that oppoze one another that the capacity of a capacitor becomes bigger due to the presence of a dielectric. Apparantly, it is possible to disrupt this balance by shortcutting the capacitor, after which the capacitor will re-establish the balance by spontaneously recharging itself. The interesting thing, however, is that just after this shortcutting, the only field that is present in the vicinity of the electrolyte, the water, is the field generated by the dielectric. And because this dielectric layer is very thin (a few micrometers) you will for some time have a very strong electric field in the vicinity of the dielectric, especially if you have polarized the dielectric using high voltage spikes/pulses, because the polarization of a dielectric depends on the applied field strength, not on the applied current or something. Given that Bedini's "cold boiling", i.e. H2 and O2 generating, batteries are being fed with the same kind of energy, HV spikes, and we also have similar "spontaneous" recharging, albeit with different metals and chemicals, I concluded that we are really looking at the same thing: a thin dielectric film is apparantly also formed inside batteries and that is apparantly also being super-polarized. Bringing this together, I concluded that this must be the key. The construction of dielectric capacitors and batteries is very similar, especially in the old days and we get similar effects, even though hydrogen production does not always occur. Given that the water contained in batteries is full of ions and the "cold boiling" effect observed by Bedini and others when the batteries are being charged with pretty powerfull Bedini chargers, I concluded that in this case the fields generated by the thin dielectric films on the plates is that strong that somehow electrolysis is being achieved, even after power is being fed to the battery. Based on that, I concluded that the presence of a strong static electric field inside the electrolyte is the sole requirement for this kind of electrolysis to occur and that that has nothing to do with any resonance effects in the water, as Meyer says. I mean, it just can't be if we can trust Bedini's observations and I do trust these are real accurate observations. Now this doesn't mean that it is impossible that you could also have interesting effects using resonance, but if that is the case, it has nothing this particular mechanism. So, in my view, it may be much more difficult to create strong polarized dielectric films when the anode/cathodes are submerged in water containing lots of ions, but eventually all that really means it that you need more muscles to polarize your dielectric, because you have to drag more ions around. So, it may take more energy to accomplish the effects we want, but the energy it takes to free electrons from the negative ions in the half reaction, and feed them to the other half reaction to get elecrolysis is exactly the same. So, the bad news is that you will have to spend considerably more effort to see these effects with non-pure water. The good news is that it is achievable anyway and when you succeed in creating self-healing dielectric films on aluminum tubes as is being done in electrolytic capacitors all the time, I am convinced you can really get to a point that such a super-polarized dielectric releases great amounts of hydrogen gas for which you only have to pay the energy needed to maintain the polarization field. However, even that energy does not have to be lost, since you can re-use this energy when "discharging" the capacitor, which will not only return most of the energy, but will also enhance the disbalance of the fields. That means you will actually get more hydrogen production if you reuse this energy!"

http://www.energeticforum.com/renewable-energy/6227-stan-meyers-secret-preventing-electrolysis-3.html#post108028 (08-23-2010) - "I have done some calculations to estimate what kind of voltage rise times you would need if you want to create an electrostatic shockwave strong enough to reach the dielectric breakdown fieldstrength for water. So, we would need a voltage rise rate of about 30 MV/m times c, or 310^7 310^8 = 910^15. Or: 9 MV/ns. That's right, 9 MegaVolt per nano second. And that is not easy to do! It may be possible using a spark gap, though. See: http://www.ece.unm.edu/summa/notes/SwN/SwN28.pdf - Fundamental physical considerations for ultrafast spark gap switching. For the calculated configuration (E= 100 MV/m , load impedance 50 Ohm) the maximum rate of voltage rise is 6 10^15 V/s, which is close, so with careful design this may be achievable. But, as I said, certainly not easy to do."

http://www.energeticforum.com/renewable-energy/6258-resonating-tf-using-bedini-circuit.html#post108175 (08-24-2010) - "Then I realised that also when using a normal capacitor, no charge can actually flow trough the capacitor. So, Grays's tube is in essence nothing but a capacitor. The rods in the centre as capacatively coupled to the grid. However, because of the significant distance between the "plates" you have a very small capacitance. So, if you want to send anything like a signal over to the other side, you will need to use very high voltages and sharp pulses. But the basic principle for getting free energy is to avoid killing the dipole. As I explain in my article, it is possible to manipulate the electric field for free, so if you can find a way to couple the driving circuit to the circuit that you want to drive by means of only the electric field, you can use the energy from the electric field for free. And that basically means that you don't want to have any charge carriers being exchanged between the driving circuit and the load circuit. And since no charge can flow trough a capacitor, you can do that in principle using a capacitor. Adding one and one together, it should be possible to drive a (almost) "half open" coil into resonance by driving it from the side where there is high voltage, but no current, by a simple (small) capacitor that should not be an electrolytic capacitor, and feed that with sharp pulses, since these are easily transmitted trough a capacitor. A Bedini kind of coil driving circuit should deliver you just the kind of driving signal you need: a spike, with a sharp rise at the front. However, at the other side of the coil, there is zero voltage, but high current. In other words: at the other side of the coil we need to have charge carriers available. That is why we have to connect that end of the coil to earth. Plenty of charge carriers there! And then suddenly it also becomes clear why Tesla's single wire transmission is so interesting. Because if you have the primaries of multiple transformers resonating at their natural resonance frequency, all it takes to extract free energy from the electric field is to connect the "cold" side of these resonators (there where no current flows) to one another...."

Posted by others

http://www.energeticforum.com/renewable-energy/5543-tesla-one-wire-current.html#post89865 - "YES! The split primary with the spark gap in the middle is the key! See my thread about flux compression. The two halves of the split primary are turned in opposite directions. This creates a bucking field in the secondary until applied current is released....Splitting the positive". Tesla wrote about this circuit: http://www.tfcbooks.com/tesla/1892-02-03.htm - "Each time the arc is broken between A and B the jars are quickly charged and discharged through the primary p p, producing a snapping spark between the knobs K K. Upon the arc forming between A and B the potential falls, and the jars cannot be charged to such high potential as to break through the air gap a b until the arc is again broken by the draught. In this manner sudden impulses, at long intervals, are produced in the primary P P, which in the secondary s give a corresponding number of impulses of great intensity. If the secondary knobs or spheres K K are of the proper size, the sparks show much resemblance to those of a Holtz machine. But these two effects, which to the eye appear so very different, are only two of the many discharge phenomena. We only need to change the conditions of the test, and again we make other observations of interest. When, instead of operating the induction coil as in the last two experiments, we operate it from a high frequency alternator, as in the next experiment, a systematic study of the phenomena is rendered much more easy. In such case, in varying the strength and frequency of the currents through the primary, we may observe five distinct forms of discharge, which I have described in my former paper on the subject before the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, May 20, 1891"

http://www.energeticforum.com/renewable-energy/3235-gray-tube-replication-65.html#post96077 - "I've been saying this for SO long: bucking magnetic fields create flux compression and tension...you can probably have a super saturation of magnetic flux when under compression or tension"

http://www.energeticforum.com/renewable-energy/5542-flux-compression-doc-brown-had-right.html - "I've been trying to figure out exactly what's happening with all these circuits that use split secondaries wound in opposite directions and center tapped.... I found out those type of transformers are called Differential Transformers. The output of both ends of the secondary is of equal magnitude and equal direction.....Splitting the Positive The center tap is ground..."

Reference to bucking fields: http://www.linux-host.org/energy/sgcarter.html "Scalar current arises by abruptly bucking magnetic fields onto a caduceus wound or a bifilar wound coil (Figure 1). If bucking magnetic fields are impressed onto an ordinary, single wound coil, no current would flow since the magnetic fields cancel. However, impressing these fields onto a caduceus or bifilar coil would allow two oppositely flowing "virtual" currents to occur because, by symmetry of the windings, the opposite current vectors sum to an effective zero current. The currents are described as "virtual" since they are comprised not of electron flow in the wires, but rather a displacement current in the vacuum zero-point energy outside the wire. It is as if the abruptly bucking magnetic field manifested a pair production of two macroscopic, oppositely rotating, displacement current vortices in the zero point energy.' These vacuum energy vortices are stabilized and supported by the two symmetric wind ings."

References

# http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/bearden/bearden09.htm - How An Electrical Circuit is REALLY Powered - Bearden for Dummies - "Let me put it this way. Every electrical system we ever built, and every one today, is powered by EM energy extracted directly from the active vacuum by the source dipole in the system." - Further quoted here: http://www.energeticforum.com/renewable-energy/5009-discussion-re-physics-behind-negative-energy-systems-radiant-spikes.html#post75558

# http://www.wbabin.net/physics/turtur1e.pdf - In this paper, Prof. Klaus Turtur shows that the electric field emitted by any charge carrier not only is dynamic (spreading with the speed of light), but it also contains energy. That energy comes from somewhere, which you might call "the Dirac sea" or ZPE, or whatever. Bottomline is: any charge carrier continuously converts some of this "vacuum energy" into a constant stream of "static" electric field energy: "On the one hand the vacuum (= the space) permanently supplies the charge with energy (first paradox aspect), which the charge (as the field source) converts into field energy and emits it in the shape of a field. On the other hand the vacuum (= the space) permanently takes energy away from the propagating field, this means, that space gets back its energy from field during the propagation of the field. This indicates that there should be some energy inside the “empty” space, which we now can understand as a part of the vacuum-energy."

# http://www.faradnet.com/deeley/book_toc.htm - Online book on electrolytic capacitors from the 1930's. Chapter 5, "Formation of Anodic Films", handles about different types of electrolytes that can be used.

# http://ether.sciences.free.fr/acrobatfiles/electrets/makinganelectret.pdf

# http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=S0103-50532002000400005&script=sci_arttext "Semiconducting Properties of Oxide and Passive Films Formed on AISI 304 Stainless Steel and Alloy 600" - "Using e = 12 for the dielectric constant of chromium oxide and iron oxide"

# http://waterfuelcell.org/phpBB2/viewtopic.php?t=521 - "Stainless steel is 'stainless' because of the chromuim in it. The chromium oxidises when it comes into contact with oxygen. This creates an invisible, extremely thin film of chromuim oxide (Cr2O3). This film of chromium oxide self-heals like galvanised steel, but unlike galvanised steel the layer is only atoms thick. Chromium oxide is an insulator, with a dielectric constant of around 13, but at literally only atoms thick, simply touching it will break through this insulation. Now, the interesting thing about stainless steel is that it will actually corrode badly in an OXYGEN FREE environment. It is the continual presence of oxygen in the air or water that allows the oxide film to self-heal and maintain itself. Now, think about what we do when we use ss as an anode. We immerse the ss in water containing free oxygen which maintains its protective oxide layer, but then we attract lots of pure oxygen directly onto it's surface. I believe we are enhancing the oxide layer thickening the oxide layer and so creating a more formidable dielectric layer. Hence we have a better water capacitor that will hold a charge for longer" Water as the dielectric was always a bug-bear of mine, as I never really thought this possible, or likely... put simply tap water conducts. Then the importance of conditioning of the plates came to light more and more, and with it realisation that the conditioning was actually forming an insulating dielectric layer. Water is not the dielectric."

# http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stainless_steel - "High oxidation-resistance in air at ambient temperature is normally achieved with additions of a minimum of 13% (by weight) chromium, and up to 26% is used for harsh environments.[9] The chromium forms a passivation layer of chromium(III) oxide (Cr2O3) when exposed to oxygen. The layer is too thin to be visible, and the metal remains lustrous. The layer is impervious to water and air, protecting the metal beneath. Also, this layer quickly reforms when the surface is scratched. This phenomenon is called passivation and is seen in other metals, such as aluminium and titanium."

# http://home.earthlink.net/~lenyr/varelec.htm - "Baking Soda Variable Electrolytic Capacitor. - While experimenting with the borax rectifier, I found that everything also worked well using a baking soda solution (1 tablespoon baking soda to 2 cups of tap water). The aluminum strip shown in the above picture was cut from a piece of aluminum pie plate. I also discovered, with either the borax or baking soda rectifier, that it acted like a large capacitor as well as a rectifier when biased in the reverse direction. I had built a homemade electrolytic capacitor. I decided to do some experimenting and measurements to see what capacitance values could be obtained. I found it easy to get large values up to 100 uf. Since the capacitance is based on a thin film of aluminum oxide that forms on the aluminum plate, the capacitance can be varied by sliding the plate in or out of the baking soda soda solution. By using a wedge shaped piece of aluminum, I was able to get continuously variable capacitance ranges of up to 5000 to 1."

# http://home.earthlink.net/~lenyr/borax.htm - "How To Observe The Glow From A Borax Or Baking Soda Rectifier."

# http://www.panaceauniversity.org/Ravi%20Cell.pdf - "Electrode conditioning helps by providing an appropriate insulating layer on the electrodes and that helps to lower useless current leakage through the water. You can see the confirmation of non conductivity of the layer formed. The white insulating coating formed during conditioning is non conductive in between the tubes (pipe gap) so you need to take it for granted that the process is basically dielectric breakdown of the bonds. The initial conditioning is very important. Ravi recommends to only using the following process described."

# http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9ckpQW9sdUg - YouTube - MIT Physics Demo -- Dissectible Capacitor - "Next we have a three-piece dissectible Leyden Jar consisting of two metal cups separated by a glass cup. When charged with the Wimshurst machine, we see by touching it with the shorting rod that it holds a large amount of charge. However, when disassembled, the metal cups can be brought into contact with each other and no spark will be generated. When the jar is reassembled it can then be discharged. This demonstrates that, in this situation, the charge actually resides on the surface of the glass (a dielectric), not on the metal."

# http://www.borderlands.com/dollardandtesla.htm - Introduction to DIELECTRICITY AND CAPACITANCE by Eric Dollard - "CAPACITANCE - The phenomena of capacitance is a type of electrical energy storage in the form of a field in an enclosed space. This space is typically bounded by two parallel metallic plates or two metallic foils on an intervening insulator or dielectric. A nearly infinite variety of more complex structures can exhibit capacity, as long as a difference in electric potential exists between various areas of the structure. The oscillating coil represents one possibility as to a capacitor of more complex form, and will be presented here." This article is also included with full figures at: http://www.scribd.com/doc/73155/Eric-Dollard-Notes-19861991 - Note: there's also a "Eric Dollard Document Collection" available at some torrent sites.

# http://www.scribd.com/doc/24526174/Eric-Dollard-The-Oscillating-Current-Transformer - Eric Dollard - The Oscillating Current Transformer.

# http://www.archive.org/details/theoryandcalcula017202mbp - Theory and Calculation of Transient Electric Phenomena and Oscillations (1920) by Charles Proteus Steinmetz (referenced by Dollard). Other books by SteinMetz: http://www.archive.org/search.php?query=Steinmetz%2C%20Charles%20Proteus%20AND%20mediatype%3Atexts

# http://www.waterfuelconverters.com/SandiaNationalLabsData.html - Sandia National Labs Water-Dielectric Breakdown Data. "The above data is a breakdown of the Journal Article listed below. The experimentation was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories pertaining to the voltage breakdown of water. The data was created for the design of water based electrical insulation systems, but is pertinent otherwise. Since the data was captured by Sandia National Laboratories the nature of its source is extremely credible, thus allowing for the extraction of substantially meaningful values."

# http://www.waterfuelconverters.com/e070401.pdf - Water-dielectric-breakdown relation for the design of large-area multimegavolt pulsed-power systems. PHYSICAL REVIEW SPECIAL TOPICS - ACCELERATORS AND BEAMS 9, 070401 (2006). "We have developed an empirical electrical-breakdown relation that can be used to design large-area water-insulated pulsed-power systems. Such systems often form an integral part of multiterawatt pulsedpower accelerators, and may be incorporated in future petawatt-class machines. We find that complete dielectric failure is likely to occur in water between a significantly field-enhanced anode and a less enhanced cathode..."

# http://www.panaceauniversity.org/Ravi%20Cell.pdf - "In one of Stan’s patents he talked about using polyoxymethylene (Delrin) which has a high dielectric constant. He used Delrin on the outside of the outer pipe and the inside of the inner pipe to contain the electron leakage. The barrier formed by the conditioning coating has a comparatively lesser dielectric constant than the Derlin material thickness used."

# http://jnaudin.free.fr/wfc/index.htm - "The center electrode of the WFC v1.0 has been covered with a thin adhesive plastic sheet so has to get a fully insulated cathod. So, it is now possible to get the Voltage Intensification with an electrical step charging effect."

# http://waterfuelcell.org/phpBB2/download.php?id=816 - Stan Meyr, Water Fuel Cell Technical Brief - Explaining the Hydrogen Fracturing Process on how to use water as a new fuel-source

# http://ipdiscover.com/pipermail/newcandle_ipdiscover.com/2008-August/001199.html (08-13-2008) - Resonance effects on RF electrolysis discussion.

# http://www.linux-host.org/energy/buerger1.htm - "High frequency - electrolysis of water" Based on the realizations of Dingel, Tanimulli and Meyer.

# A novel method of hydrogen generation by water electrolysis using an ultra-short-pulse power supply. Journal of Applied Electrochemistry (2006) 36:419–423 - "A novel method of hydrogen generation by water electrolysis using ultra-short-pulse power supply is demonstrated. The ultra-short power supply consists of a static induction thyristor (SIThy) and a specific circuit which is called the inductive energy storage (IES) circuit. It was found that by using an ultra-short pulse with the width of 300 ns, electrolysis takes place with a mechanism dominated by electron transfer, which is different from the conventional diffusion limiting process in DC electrolysis." Available here: http://www.energeticforum.com/renewable-energy/6227-stan-meyers-secret-preventing-electrolysis-2.html#post107835

# http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrolytic_capacitor - The principle of the electrolytic capacitor was discovered in 1886 by Charles Pollak, as part of his research into anodizing of aluminum and other metals. Pollack discovered that due to the thinness of the aluminum oxide layer produced, there was a very high capacitance between the aluminum and the electrolyte solution. A major problem was that most electrolytes tended to dissolve the oxide layer again when the power is removed, but he eventually found that sodium perborate (borax) would allow the layer to be formed and not attack it afterwards. He was granted a patent for the borax-solution aluminum electrolytic capacitor in 1897.

# http://www.hbci.com/~wenonah/new/tesla.htm - A.O. Chapter 4 of "Lost Science" by Gerry Vassilatos - "Broadcast Power" - Nikola Tesla

# http://www.ece.unm.edu/summa/notes/SwN/SwN28.pdf - Fundamental physical considerations for ultrafast spark gap switching. - For the calculated configuration (E= 100 MV/m , load impedance 50 Ohm) the maximum rate of voltage rise is 6 10^15 V/s.

# http://www.instructables.com/id/Soda-Can-Leyden-Jar/step5/Charging-the-Leyden-jar/ - "I measured the capacitance with a handheld digital meter and got consistent results of 00.32 nF (that's 320 pF) for this model Leyden jar. A variant of the Soda Can Leyden jar made with polypropylene bottles rates as high as 00.50 nF (500 pf)."

# http://www.st-andrews.ac.uk/~www_pa/Scots_Guide/audio/part6/page2.html - "So the above is equivalent to saying that each cubic centimetre of copper will contain 8·4830 × 10^22 free electrons per cc"

# http://physics.kenyon.edu/EarlyApparatus/Static_Electricity/Leiden_Jar/Leiden_Jar.html - "I used a capacitance meter to measure C for one of these jars, and obtained a value of about 1200 pF. This agreed pretty well with a calculation of the equivalent flat-plate capacitor with a glass dielectric."

# http://www.tf.uni-kiel.de/matwis/amat/elmat_en/kap_3/backbone/r3_3_2.html - "typical relaxation times are around 10 –11 s this corresponds to frequencies in the GHz range , i.e. "cm -waves". We must therefore expect that typical materials exhibiting orientation polarization (e.g. water), will show some peculiar behavior in the microwave range of the electromagnetic spectrum."

# http://www.virginia.edu/bohr/mse209/chapter19.htm - "Capacitors require dielectrics of high e that can function at high frequencies (small relaxation times). Many of the ceramics have these properties, like mica, glass, and porcelain). Polymers usually have lower e."

# http://www.designers-guide.org/Modeling/da.pdf - Modeling Dielectric Absorption in Capacitors

# http://www.ims.uconn.edu/images/eirc/capapeitpl_vent.PDF - Dielectric Properties of Metalized Paper-Film Capacitors

# http://www.clippercontrols.com/pages/dielectric-values - An extensive list of products with Dielectric Constants.

# http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/archivos_pdf/tesla_thermodynamics2.pdf - "We have to evolve means for obtaining energy from stores which are forever inexhaustible, to perfect methods which do not imply consumption and waste of any material whatever. I now feel sure that the realization of that idea is not far off. ...the possibilities of the development I refer to, namely, that of the operation of engines on any point of the earth by the energy of the medium...(Tesla, 1897)"

# http://www.energeticforum.com/attachments/renewable-energy/4216d1259618371-use-tesla-switch-otg-plante-cell-observations-dmr07.pdf http://www.energeticforum.com/attachments/renewable-energy/4217d1259618398-use-tesla-switch-otg-experimental-plante-cell-observations2-dmr08.pdf (registration required) - "High Voltage impulse charging as prescribed by John Bedini has been seen to charge a battery cell in a different physical manner." - First article also available at: http://www.panaceauniversity.org/OTG%20-%20Plante%20Cell%20observations%20-%20DMR07.pdf

# http://amasci.com/tesla/tmistk.html - "After years of messing with Tesla Coils, I finally see what Tesla was up to with single wire transmission, with resonant coils, and with longitudinal waves. See if the following doesn't make sense." - In this article, it is explained that in Tesla's wireless transmission system the earth is used as a conductor.

# http://amasci.com/emotor/cap1.html - "First charge up a Leyden jar using a Wimshurst Machine (or other source of high voltage.) Now, carefully remove the inner metal from the jar. Now remove the outer metal. Discharge everything, then hand the parts around the classroom. Next, put the parts together again, connect the two metal cylinders, and BANG!, there is a loud discharge. Doesn't this prove that the energy in a capacitor is stored in the dielectric? No. Whenever you take apart a Leyden jar or other high voltage capacitor, there is a corona effect which makes very strange things occur. When you electrify a Leyden jar, and then you pull the inner metal cylinder out of the jar, the capacitance value drops, and this makes the potential difference skyrocket to enormous levels. The potential tries to become huge but it cannot, because instead it creates corona along the metal edges, and and it leaks the excess charge into the air. This corona allows the opposite electrical charges to "paint" themselves onto both sides of the dielectric "jar" surface. So, if you pull a leyden jar apart, the sharp edges of the metal plates sweep along and transfer a large percentage of the separated charges from the metal plates to the glass surfaces. The energy is still there! It's still stored as a field in the dielectric, but those separated charges are not on the mental plates anymore. Instead they are now TRAPPED ON THE GLASS SURFACE! Strange idea, huh? A capacitor with no plates, just a dielectric. Now reassemble the Leyden jar: momentarily touch each metal plate to ground, and put it back together again. You'll find that it's still strongly electrified! The trapped charges on the glass surface can still induce equal charges on the adjacent metal plates. Touch the two terminals with your fingers and BOOM!, the momentary current in your muscles will throw you across the room.This strange effect leads many people to claim that the energy in a capacitor is permanently trapped in the dielectric, and that it is not stored in the electric field. This is wrong.

# http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leyden_jar#The_.22dissectible_Leyden_jar.22_myth - "When not properly explained, this demonstration promotes the myth that capacitors store their charge inside their dielectric. This erroneous belief was taught in schools throughout the 1800s, and is still sometimes encountered. However this phenomenon is a special effect caused by the high voltage on the Leyden jar.[7] In the dissectible Leyden jar, charge is transferred to the surface of the glass cup by corona discharge when the jar is disassembled this is the source of the residual charge after the jar is reassembled. Handling the cup while disassembled does not provide enough contact to remove all the surface charge. Soda glass is hygroscopic and forms a partially conductive coating on its surface, which holds the charge.[7] Addenbrook (1922) found that in a dissectible jar made of paraffin, or glass baked to remove moisture, the charge remained on the metal plates.[8] Zeleny (1944) confirmed these results and observed the corona charge transfer.[9] In capacitors generally, the charge is not stored in the dielectric, but on the inside surfaces of the plates, as can be seen from the fact that capacitors can function with a vacuum between their plates.[10]"

# http://www.ece.rochester.edu/~jones/demos/capacitor.html

# http://www.lhup.edu/~dsimanek/scenario/e-stat.htm - "Now ask them to think about where the charge was, while you fire up the VDG and charge the capacitor again. By then they have finally figured out that the charge resides on the inner and outer surfaces of the insulating glass or plastic cup. Disassemble the capacitor (carefully) as before. Pick up the insulating cup by its bottom, and offer it to the nearest student, telling him or her to put a hand inside to see if there's any charge in there. Assure the student that it is safe, but don't force the cup on someone who is adamantly unwilling. [There's always some gullible fool in the class who will take the teacher's word that something is safe.] I usually choose a girl for this part, looking her straight in the eye with a sincere 'trust me' look, accompanied by non-threatening body language. I've never had anyone refuse to put a hand inside the cup. Psychology? Ask the class to be 'very, very quiet' as the student (probably with great caution) inserts her fingers into the insulating cup. The student feels the charge, and others can hear the 'crackling' sound, but the student feels nothing even slightly painful, just a pleasant Coulomb tickling. Point out that there's charge on the outside of the insulating cup also. Even after the student has done that, significant charge remains. The capacitor can be re-assembled and a healthy spark drawn from it. The hand and fingers made contact only with a small fraction of the cup's inner surface, and the parts not touched kept their charge.

Related patents

http://sdch2o.free.fr/vrac/GB%202.324.307A%20R.Eccles.pdf - UK Patent showing that electrolysis using the electric field only is possible.

http://www.freepatentsonline.com/4427512.pdf - Water decomposition method and device using ionization by collision. United States Patent 4427512 - "This invention relates to the decomposition of water into oxygen and hydrogen by the effect of ionization by collision among the water molecules. Water of liquid dielectric characteristics is contained within a solid dielectric container having higher dielectric constant relative to that of the water, the solid dielectric also having thermostability. A high voltage is then applied to the solid dielectric, creating a strong enough electric field, exceeding the covalent bond of the liquid dielectric, to decompose the water, while the solid dielectric container maintains its stability."

http://www.rexresearch.com/andersnh/andersnh.htm - Herman ANDERSON, Water Fuel System. - "In a video interview with the inventor, he explains that ambient air is mixed with hydrogen (not oxygen) and a micron-sized fog of water mist (to mimic gasoline's burn), introduced in the same way propane gas is on a propane conversion. In fact, the LP regulator and LP aircleaner assembly are the same as on a propane vehicle. The butterfly in the carb, as in an LP system, now serves as the intake air control. The rest of the function of the gasoline carb is not used. He claimed greater power than gasoline, and 38 miles per gallon of water. As far as quantity of hydrogen produced, he produced enough gas from his electrolytic chamber to need a cut-off switch connected to a pressure gauge to stop gas production when it was no longer needed while driving. In other words, instead of producing more or less gas on demand, as some systems do, it appears his system always produced the same amount, but was turned on and off as needed. He emphasized that deuterium (heavy water) was essential to his approach, doubling the density of the hydrogen, making it twice as powerful. He also used high voltage, 70,000 volts to be exact, from two custom-made coils, to effect rapid separation of the component gases, a process which he calls 'radiolysis.' The 70,000 volts constitute what he calls a 'soft' x-ray, not radioactive but in need of shielding, in-between a microwave oven and a 'hard' x-ray. He was authorized by the state of Tennessee to drive his car as they recognized that he knew what he was doing with such technology. I view his prototype LTD as good proof of a watercar for those who doubt that the technology is even possible, but not necessarily the best approach for you and me to pursue. He accomplished his invention along the lines of his expertise, the field of ionics others have approached it differently with less controversial technology and have been equally successful."

http://www.google.com/patents/about?id=e_MoAAAAEBAJ - Electrolytic cell apparatus and methods for generating a useful energy product from a plurality of energy sources. In a preferred embodiment, hydrogen gas is produced at a cathode by transmission of electrons through a low voltage potential barrier to electron flow achieved by careful control of..."

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