Lasted edited by Andrew Munsey, updated on June 14, 2016 at 9:38 pm.
In March 2012 John Arrington released the results of his experiments made in the Argonne National Laboratory:
Arrington’s experiment showed that it is correct the hypothesis of the existence of a central 2He4 within the structure of all nuclei, as proposed in Quantum Ring Theory[ 1 ].
Here we analyse the meaning of his experiment concerning what it represents for the prevailing current Nuclear Physics, and we show that his results corroborate the new Hexagonal Floors Model proposed in Quantum Ring Theory.
Within the nuclei there are protons, neutrons, and deuteriuns
According to the prevailing Nuclear Theory, those nucleons move chaotically within the nuclei.
When in 1993 I started to think about the fundamental questions concerning the structure of the nucleus, I had the intuition that the nucleons could not move chaotically into there. And some nuclear properties of the nuclei were corroborating my intuition.
For instance, the nucleus 8O16 has null nuclear magnetic moment, and null nuclear spin. These two nuclear properties could not be possible by considering a chaotic movement of nucleons within the nucleus 8O16.
The nuclear model proposed in Quantum Ring Theory is named Hexagonal Floors Model. It has a central 2He4, which produces a gravitational flux that keep the nucleons tied to the central 2He4.
Such gravitational flux is named n(o) in QRT. Fig 2.1 shows the nucleus 3Li6, where we may see two fluxes n(o), f(1) and f(2), and a nucleon 1H2 captured by the flux f(1).
Fig. 2.2 shows the nucleus 8O16, were we see six fluxes n(o), and six nucleons 1H2 captured by each flux n(o).
From the figures 2.1 and 2.2 we realize that such flux n(o) is a string formed by gravitons that move with the speed of light.
In 2009 I discovered that Diract had proposed the existence of magnetic strings, because in 2009 a paper was published, describing the detection of Dirac’s strings:
Electric quadrupole moment is indicated by Q(b).
Consider several particles with positive electric charge, and suppose they are agglutinated and form a body.
If they form a perfect spherical form, such body has null electric quadrupole moment, Q(b) = 0.
This is shown for the body at ther left side of the figure:
The figure also shows the electric quadrupole moment for a body with Q(b) > 0 and Q(b) > 196 fm2 , then we realize (if we consider that the nucleus aggregation is due to the strong force only) that it is not possible to explain the structure of the oxygen nucleus 8O16, which radius is 10fm, detected by the experiments made with alpha particles scattering.
How did the nuclear physicists solve such paradox ?
Simple. They rejected the experiments with alpha particles scattering. They replaced the alpha particles scattering by electron scattering:
In this way, they get the radii of the oxygen nucleus in the order of 3fm, and so they keep their theory, where the nucleus aggregation is due to the strong force only.
However, the results are not pure experimental data. Actually they made a mixture of the experimental data and a theoretical formula known as Fermi formula:
r = r0. A1/3, where r0.= 1,2 fm
In this way, from a mixture between experimental data by using electron scattering and theoretical considerations, the nuclear physicists have suceeded to conciliate the radii of lightest nuclei, as oxygen, with their hypothesis that strong force, alone, is responsible for the aggregation of nuclei.
And obviously there is no any nuclear table where we may find the experimental radii obtained in the experiments, like happens with other nuclear properties measured by experiments, as nuclear magnetic moments, nuclear spins, and electric quadrupole moments, which are found in nuclear tables.
But now John Arrington experiment is showing that such experimental-theoretical method for determining the radii of nuclei is unacceptable.
Figure 4.2 shows the structure of 3Li7 in the page 229 of the book QRT, where the nucleon 1H2 has a distance 6fm regarding the center of the nucleus. Such figure was used for calculating the theoretical nuclear magnetic moment of 3Li7.
No, it is not possible, and we will show why.
There are two reasons why Nuclear Physics cannot explain the structure of beryllium nucleus detected in John Arrington’s experiment:
1- The range of strong force
2- The null electric quadrupole moment of 4Be8
Let's analyse them:
1- The range of strong force
Look at the Fig 5.1, detected by John Arrington as the structure of beryllium:
As there is a nucleon which gyrates about the central 2He4 with a radius 7fm, obviously there is no way to explain why such nucleon is kept with the beryllium nucleus by considering the strong force only.
2- The null electric quadrupole moment of 4Be8
It seems John Arrington and his crew are trying to explain the aggregation of the beryllium nucleus (keeping the hypothesis of strong force can do it alone) by considering that protons and neutrons disagragate within the nuclei.
"I think it's imperative that scientists continue to study the phenomena that take place there," Arrington said. "Our next measurement will try to examine this question directly by taking a snapshot of the quark distributions at the moment when the nucleons are close together."
In that link it is expalined Arrington idea, which is the following:
When the nuclei approach each other, however, the forces that bind quarks can be disturbed by changing the structure of protons and neutrons, perhaps even forming composite particles by quarks of two different nuclei
However, suppose that Arrington succeeds to explain the aggregation of the beryllium structure by keeping the hypothesis that strong force can do it alone.
Nevertheless, there are three facts to be considered:
1- Obviously, consider that protons and neutrons disintegrate within the nuclei, so that their quarks get freedom, is very strange.
And sure that such hypothesis is much more strange than the hypothesis that nuclei aggregation is due to Dirac gravitational strings produced by the central 2He4, as proposed in the nuclear model of QRT. Besides, such hypothesis of Dirac strings is corroborated by the experiments with alpha scattering particles, which obtained the radius 10fm of the nuclei, as considered in the nuclear model of QRT.
2- Even if Arrington succeeds to find a theory capable to explain the structure of beryllium nucleus by keeping the strong force as responsible for the nucleus aggregation, he will not succeed to explain why the 4Be8 has null electric quadrupole moment, because from the concepts of prevailing Nuclear Physics it is impossible to explain how that structure of beryllium detected in his experiment (with no spherical distribution of electris charges) can have null electric quadrupole moment.
3- Of course the nuclear physicists will try all sort of attempts, trying to keep their hypothesis that nuclei aggregation is due to strong force interactions only.
But it is obvious that they will not succeed in their interprise.
There is no doubt that, soon or later, they will be obliged to consider the hypothesis proposed in Quantum Ring Theory: that nuclei aggregation is not a consequence of strong force interactions.
Let’ see why 4Be8 has null electric quadrupole moment, according to Quantum Ring Theory.
The figure 6.1 ahead shows the structure of beryllium at the page 230 of the book QRT:
Figure 6.2 shows the 4Be8 where the two deuteriuns (yellow) are aligned along a straight line with regard to the central 2He4 (blue) , as detected in Arrington’s experiment.
So, how to explain the null electric quadrupole moment of 4Be8, since it requires a spherical form of electric particles distribution ?
In spite of the nuclear model proposed in Quantum Ring Theory is named Hexagonal Floors Model, however the nucleons that form a hexagon do not have a flat hexagonal form.
Actually, as there is repulsion between the nucleons and between the nucleons and the central 2He4, the deuteriuns that form the hexagonal floors are oscillating in that structure.
The figure 6.3 ahead shows the figure 1.2 of the page 144 of the book QRT, where the deuteriuns oscillate in the hexagonal floor of the nucleus 8O16:
The Fig. 6.3 shows the nucleus 8O16 in three different times: t0, t0 + ?t , and t0 + 2?t .
In that figure we see that in those three different times each deuterium occupies a different plance with regard to the x-y plane (the red line in the SIDE VIEW).
Then now let’s analise what happens when the experiments try to detect the electric quadrupole of 8O16.
1- The nucleus 8O16 has a nuclear spin
2- The nucleus 8O16 has null nuclear magnetic moment. So, it means that it is impossible to align the nucleus along a direction, by applying an external magnetic field
3- Due to the nuclear spin, and because the deuteriuns of the hexagonal floor shown in the Fig 6.3 have a chaotic oscillation, then the experiments detect, in average, a spherical distrubution of charge, and so it seems that experiments detect a spherical structure of the 8O16
The same happens with the structure of the 4Be8, because:
1- 4Be8 has null nuclear magnetic moment, and so there is no way to align it throw a direction in the experiments.
2- It has a nuclear spin
3- Looking at the Fig 6.2, we realize that the two deuteriuns oscillate with chaotic motion about the central 2He4 (because each 1H2 has repulsion with the 2He4, and also because each 1H2 has repulsion with the other 1H2).
Therefore, due to the nuclear spin and the chaotic motion of the two nucleons 1H2, such linear structure of the 4Be8 shown in Fig. 6.2 behaves, in average, as it should have a spherical distribution of charge.
So, from the nuclear model proposed in Quantum Ring Theory it is possible to explain why that liinear structure of beryllium detected in Arrington’s experiment has a null electric quadrupole moment.
Of course, it is not possible to explain it from the prevailing models of current Nuclear Physics.
As we already have concluded from the previous sections, the answer is NO.
So, how can the nucleons be aggregated within the nuclei, since the strong force, alone, cannot keep the structure of nuclei united ?
The answer is given by the Hexagonal Floors Model proposed in QRT. The force which aggregates the nucleons within the nuclei is the force due to the Dirac gravitational strings produced by the central 2He4.
1- Eisberg R. , Resnick R. , Física Quântica, Átomos, Moléculas, Sólidos, Núcleos e Partículas, 1979, Editora Campus, Brazil
2- Guglinski W. , Quantum Ring Theory- Foundations for Cold Fusion, 2006- Bäuu Institute Press.